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Louis Ginzberg, Ph.D.

Professor of Talmud, Jewish Theological Seminary of America, New York City.

Contributions:
AARON ZOROGON – Turco-Jewish scholar, who flourished about the middle of the seventeenth century. He was the author of "Bet Aharon" (House of Aaron), which contains sixty homilies, arranged in the order of the sections of the Pentateuch, as...
ABARIM – Biblical Data: A term applied to the edge of the Moabite plateau. From its most prominent headland, Mount Nebo, the western part of Judea was plainly visible (Jer. xxii. 20; Num. xxvii. 12, xxiii. 47; Deut. xxxii. 49, and see...
ABBA – 1. A brother of Rabban Gamaliel, probably Gamaliel II.; perhaps identical with Abba, a contemporary of Johanan ben Zakkai, mentioned in Peah, ii. 6. Besides Gamaliel's daughter, Abba had at the same time another wife; and when...
ABBA (RABBA) BAR DUDAI – Head of the Academy of Pumbedita from 772 till about 780. Sherira Gaon adds to Abba's name the words "our grandfather," which, however, are not meant to indicate that Dudai was an immediate ancestor of Sherira. A copyist's...
ABBA JUDAN – A philanthropist who lived in Antioch in the early part of the second century. As an example of his generosity, it is recorded that once he sold half of his property, already considerably reduced by the demands of charity, to...
ABBA ḲOLON – A mythical Roman mentioned in a Talmudic legend concerning the foundation of Rome, which, according to the Haggadah, was a result of the impious conduct of the Jewish kings. According to the legend, the first settlers of Rome...
ABBA MARI BEN ELIGDOR – A distinguished Talmudist, an eminent philosopher, and an able physicist and astronomer; flourished in the fourteenth century in Salonica. In 1335 he was already very old (Samuel of Marseilles, in "Écrivains Juifs," p. 562,...
ABBA MARI BEN ISAAC OF ST. GILLES – Flourished about the middle of the twelfth century, and lived at St. Gilles, near Lunel, in Languedoc. According to Benjamin of Tudela, who visited the Jewish community of that place, Abba Mari held the office of bailli...
ABBA SAḲḲARA – Insurrectionary leader; lived in the first century in Palestine. According to Talmudic accounts (Giṭ. 56a), he took a very prominent part in the uprising against Rome in 70, being then at the head of the Zealots at Jerusalem. He...
ABBA THE SURGEON (UMANA) – Mentioned in the Talmud as an example of genuine Jewish piety and benevolence (Ta'anit, 21b et seq.). Although dependent upon his earnings, he was so unselfish and considerate that, in order to avoid embarrassing the poor among...
ABBAS, MOSES JUDAH – A Hebrew poet; lived about the middle of the seventeenth century at Rosetta, in Egypt. He was a descendant of the Abbas family, whose poetic bent continued to manifest itself even when the neo-Hebrew poetry was on the decline....
ABBASI, JACOB BEN MOSES IBN – Translator and scholar, who flourished in the second half of the thirteenth century at Huesca, Spain. His father, Moses ibn Abbasi the Martyr (the son signs himself , which can only mean ), was surnamed Bedersi, which might...
ABD – An Arabic word that forms the first part of many compound proper names of Jews of Arabic-speaking countries. The name following it is invariably that of a deity, and is either (1) the proper name of a god, as in early times, or...
ABEL – Biblical Data: The younger brother of Cain and the second son of Adam and Eve. He was the first shepherd, while Cain was a tiller of the soil. The writer of Gen. iv. tells us that when the brothers came as a matter of course to...
ABEL-MIZRAIM – Occurs only in Genesis (l. 11). It is interpreted by Septuagint, Vulgate, and the Peshito (followed by A. V.) as "Mourning of the Egyptians," or "of Egypt"; and there can be no doubt that it was intended to suggest a connection...
ABEL, SOLOMON BEN ḲALMAN HALEVI – Russian educator and ethical writer; born March 11, 1857, at Novomyesto-Sugint (Neustadt), district of Rossieny, government of Kovno, Russia; died at Telsh, government of Kovno, Oct. 12, 1886. His success as a teacher at the...
ABIATHAR – Biblical Data: A son of Ahimelech or Ahijah (melech and yah apparently interchanging; compare I Sam. xiv. 3, xxii. 9); the chief priest of the sanctuary at Nob. He alone escaped from the massacre of his family by Saul (I Sam....
ABIATHAR – A Palestinian amora, the contemporary of R. Judah (217-299) and of his successor, R. Ḥisda, the head of the Sura Academy, with both of whom Abiathar maintained a correspondence. The great number of Babylonian students who...
ABIATHAR HA-KOHEN OF CAIRO – Nagid (chief) of the Egyptian Jews, which office he inherited from his ancestors. He flourished at the end of the eleventh century and is known to have died before 1112. He took a prominent part in the Messianic movement of the...
ABIGAIL – 1. A daughter of Jesse and sister of David, who married Jether the Ishmaelite, and became the mother of Amasa (I Chron. ii. 16, 17). In II Sam. xvii. 25 she is againmentioned as the mother of Amasa, but is called Abigail the...
ABIGDOR COHEN – Italian rabbi, distinguished for learning and wealth, who lived in Ferrara about the middle of the fifteenth century. Joseph Kolon, the most important Talmudist of Italy at that time, speaks of him in terms of the highest...
ABIGDOR BEN ELIJAH HA-KOHEN – The earliest of the great Talmudists of Austria; flourished about the middle of the thirteenth century. He was the pupil of R. Simḥa of Speyer (who flourished about 1220), but he knew also R. Joel ha-Levi of Bonn (who flourished...
ABIGDOR BEN ISAAC – A French rabbinic scholar; lived during the second half of the thirteenth century. He is probably identical with the "Abigdor the Frenchman" mentioned in old manuscripts, who wrote a commentary on the Maḥzor. From a note in...
ABIGDOR BEN MENAHEM – German Talmudist; lived at the beginning of the fifteenth century. The Bodleian collection of manuscripts contains responsa by him. Abigdor ben Menahem, to judge from the place assigned to him in the collection, seems to have...
ABIGDOR BEN NATHAN OF AVIGNON – French Talmudist; flourished in the thirteenth and at the beginning of the fourteenth centuries. He was the teacher of Abraham ben Nathan, the author of "Ha-Manhig," in which work Abigdor is twice mentioned. In 1304, when...