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Louis Ginzberg, Ph.D.

Professor of Talmud, Jewish Theological Seminary of America, New York City.

Contributions:
ABIGDOR, SOLOMON BEN ABRAHAM – A Hebrew translator; born in Provence in 1384. Assisted by his father, Abraham Bonet ben Meshullam, he, at the early age of fifteen years, translated Arnauld de Villeneuve's work, "De Judiciis Astronomiæ," from Latin into Hebrew...
ABIHU – Biblical Data: He is mentioned in Ex. xxiv. 1, 9, where he and his brother are classed with Moses and Aaron as the leaders or chiefs of the "elders" of Israel, who go up into the mount to eat the covenant meal with YHWH.In other...
ABIJAH – Name of several Old Testament personages, of whom the following are the most notable:1.—Biblical Data: Son of Samuel, who, with his elder brother Joel, judged Israel in Beersheba. Their inefficiency and venality were the...
ABIJAH – Name of several Old Testament personages, of whom the following are the most notable:1.—Biblical Data: Son of Samuel, who, with his elder brother Joel, judged Israel in Beersheba. Their inefficiency and venality were the...
ABIJAH – Name of several Old Testament personages, of whom the following are the most notable:1.—Biblical Data: Son of Samuel, who, with his elder brother Joel, judged Israel in Beersheba. Their inefficiency and venality were the...
ABIJAH – Name of several Old Testament personages, of whom the following are the most notable:1.—Biblical Data: Son of Samuel, who, with his elder brother Joel, judged Israel in Beersheba. Their inefficiency and venality were the...
ABIMELECH – 1. Son of Gideon (surnamed Jerubbaal), the great "judge" of Israel. By virtue of his father's dictatorship or semiroyalty, he claimed to rule over Ephraim. He was, however, merely the son of Gideon's concubine; and to make good...
ABIRAM – 1.—Biblical Data: Son of Eliab, one of the conspiratorsagainst Moses (Num. xvi. 1; Ps. cvi. 17). Deut. xi. 6 places him in the tribe of Reuben. G. B. L.—In Rabbinical Literature: Abiram—who obtained his name from the fact that...
ABISHAG – Biblical Data: A beautiful Shunammite, brought by the servants of David to his harem to minister to the aged king in the hope of reviving his failing powers (I Kings, i. 1-5). After the accession of Solomon, Adonijah, his elder...
ABISHAI – Biblical Data: A son of David's sister Zeruiah. Abishai ranked as a general in command second only to his brother Joab (II Sam. x. 10, 14, xviii. 2, 5, 12). By saving David's life (II Sam. xxi. 17) and by the slaughter of three...
ABLAT – A Gentile sage and astrologer in Babylonia. The close friendship which existed between him and Mar Samuel (died 254) shows that the legal restrictions of their religion did not prevent the Babylonian Jews from social...
ABNER – Biblical Data: According to I Chron. viii. 29-33, and Josephus ("Ant." vi. 6, § 3), an uncle of Saul; while I Sam. xiv. 51 and Josephus ("Ant." vi. 6, § 6) seem to show that he was Saul's cousin. The latter view is regarded as...
ABOMINATION OF DESOLATION – An expression occurring in Matt. xxiv. 15 and Mark, xiii. 14 (A. V.), where the Greek text has τὸ βδέλυγμα τῆς έρημώσεως. The Greek itself, however, is referable to a Hebrew expression, , found in Dan. ix. 27 (where the ם of has...
ABRAHAM, APOCALYPSE OF – An apocryphon that has been preserved in Old Slavonic literature. Its title does not fully explain its contents, for about one-third of it might more appropriately be called "The Legend of Abraham," as this contains an account...
ABRAHAM, TESTAMENT OF – Recent Discovery of Book. An apocryphal book, published for the first time by Montague Rhodes James, in two different recensions, in Robinson's "Texts and Studies," ii. No. 2 (Cambridge, 1892), and translated from the Greek...
ABRAHAM ABELE BEN ABRAHAM SOLOMON – Known as Abele Posveller (from Poswol in the government of Kovno); acting rabbi of Wilna; died July 29, 1836. He was considered one of the leading Talmudists of his age. Although he has left no independent literary work, he...
ABRAHAM ABELE GOMBINER – Polish Talmudist; born about 1635 at Gombin, in Russian Poland; died at Kalisz about 1683. He was a son of Ḥayyim ha-Levi, who was killed by the Cossacks in 1655. Abraham was one of the most eminent Talmudists of his time; a...
ABRAHAM BEN ABIGDOR – Bohemian rabbi; born in the latter part of the fifteenth century; died at Prague, Oct. 7, 1542. For the last twenty years of his life he was rabbi of Prague, and as such had many pupils, among whom was Abraham Jaffe,father of...
ABRAHAM OF ARAGON – A skilful oculist, who flourished in the middle of the thirteenth century. Shortly after the Council of Béziers, in 1246, had forbidden Jewish physicians to practise, Abraham was requested by Alphonse, count of Poitou and...
ABRAHAM OF AUGSBURG – Proselyte to Judaism; died a martyr's death Nov. 21, 1265. He seems to have adopted his new faith with such enthusiasm that he publicly assailed Christianity and attacked images of the saints, for which he was sentenced to...
ABRAHAM BEN AZRIEL OF BOHEMIA – A Bohemian Talmudist and grammarian, who flourished in the first half of the thirteenth century and probably lived at Prague. Among his works, yet unpublished, is a commentary on the Maḥzor, entitled "Arugat ha-Bosem" (Bed of...
ABRAHAM BEN BENJAMIN AARON – A Polish Talmudist of the first half of the seventeenth century; died at Brest, Lithuania, in 1642. He was rabbi at Tarnopol in 1636, and officiated in other Polish towns. In the latter year he was called to the rabbinate of...
ABRAHAM BEN DAVID OF POSQUIÈRES – French Talmudic commentator; born in Provence, France, about 1125; died at Posquières, Nov. 27, 1198. Son-in-law of Abraham ben Isaac Ab-Bet-Din (RABaD II). The teachers under whose guidance he acquired most of his Talmudic...
ABRAHAM BEN ELIEZER – Commentator (probably a contemporary of Elijah Mizraḥi); lived in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, probably at Constantinople. He wrote a supercommentary on Rashi's Bible Commentary. Only a small fragment of it, covering...
ABRAHAM BEN ELIEZER HA-KOHEN – Polish darshan, or preacher: flourished in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. He was the great-grandson of Issachar Baer, surnamed Baerman Ashkenazi, the commentator of the Rabbot. At Amsterdam, in 1673, he edited his...