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Louis Ginzberg, Ph.D.

Professor of Talmud, Jewish Theological Seminary of America, New York City.

Contributions:
JUDAH B. KALONYMUS B. MEÏR – German historian and Talmudic lexicographer; flourished in the second half of the twelfth century. Judah came from one of the most celebrated Jewish families of Germany. Kalonymus, Judah's father, was a scholar, an elder in...
KLATZKO, MORDECAI BEN ASHER – Russian rabbi and author; born in Wilna 1797; died in Lida July 2, 1883. He was a descendant of Rabbi Mayer Katzenellenbogen of Padua. Klatzko received the usual Talmudical education and soon distinguished himself by his keen...
LANDAU – A family name said to have been derived from the name of a city situated in western Germany.The name is found largely among Polish Jews, who probably were expelled from that city about the middle of the sixteenth century (see...
LAW, CODIFICATION OF – Definition. A unified and coordinated body of law superseding all previous laws within its scope, or the reenactment of existing law in a systematic and improved form. There are few Jewish codes under the first head, but many...
LIPSCHÜTZ (LÜPSCHÜTZ, LIPSCHITZ, LIBSCHITZ) – Name of a family of Polish and German rabbis; derived from "Liebeschitz," name of a town in Bohemia.Aryeh Löb Lipschütz: Austrian rabbi and author; lived in the second half of the eighteenth and in the first half of the...
LÖB ARYEH BEN ELIAH OF BOLOCHOW – Russian rabbi; born at Satanov, government of Podolia, 1801; died at Zaslavl, government of Volhynia, Sept. 2, 1881; a descendant of Rabbi Joshua Höschel of Cracow (1654-64), author of "Sefer Toledot Aharon." Löb Aryeh, in...
MEÏR OF ROTHENBURG (MEÏR B. BARUCH) – German tosafist, codifier, and liturgical poet; born at Worms about 1215; died in the fortress of Ensisheim, Alsace, May 2 (April 27 old style), 1293. He belonged to a family which was noted for its scholars; and in his responsa...
MENAHEM B. AARON IBN ZERAH – Spanish codifier; born in Navarre, probably at Estella, in the first third of the fourteenth century; died at Toledo July, 1385. His father, forced to leave France in 1306 through the expulsion of the Jews, went to Spain and...
MERODACH-BALADAN – King of Babylon (712 B.C.), who sent letters and a present to Hezekiah, King of Judah, when the latter had recovered from his sickness. Hezekiah, delighted with the courtesy, shows the messengers all his treasures, withholding...
MORDECAI B. HILLEL B. HILLEL – German halakist of the thirteenth century; died as a martyr at Nuremberg Aug. 1, 1298. Mordecai belonged to one of the most prominent families of scholars in Germany, his grandfather Hillel being on the mother's side a grandson...
MOSES ISAAC OF KELMY – Russian preacher, known as the "Kelmer maggid"; born in Slonim, government of Grodno, 1828; died in Lida, government of Wilna, Nov. 9, 1899. At the age of ten he lost his father, and he was brought up by his maternal...
MOSES OF KIEV – Russian Talmudist; lived in the first half of the twelfth century. Moses seems to have been in western Europe in consequence of the expulsion of the Jews from Kiev in 1124 (comp. Firkowitz in "Ha-Karmel," ii. 407). It is not...
MOSESSOHN, AARON BEN MOSES – German rabbi; born probably in Glogau; died at Ansbach, Bavaria, 1780; was a descendant of the Ẓebi family (see Brüll's "Jahrb." i. 87-122). In 1763 he was elected rabbi of Berlin, having previously been rabbi of Dessau....
NEBUCHADNEZZAR – Biblical Data: The son of Nabopolassar; became king of Babylon in 604 B.C. as Assyria was on the decline; died 561.His name, either in this spelling or in the more correct form, Nebuchadrezzar (from the original,...
NEBUZAR-ADAN – Biblical Data: Captain of Nebuchadnezzar's body-guard. Nebuzar-adan entered Jerusalem in 586 B.C., burned the Temple, the king's palace, and the houses of the great, razed the walls of the city, and carried many of its people...
NEYAR, SEFER HA- – Anonymous compendium of laws; compiled during the first third of the fourteenth century, after 1319, probably by a Provençal. It consists mainly of extracts from the works of French scholars, although the "Halakot Gedolot" and...
ONḲELOS – Tanna of the end of the first century C.E. Although the proselyte Onḳelos is frequently confounded with the proselyte Aquila in the Talmud and the Tosefta, even the designation of the official targum to the Pentateuch as "Targum...
RONSBURG, BEZALEL B. JOEL – Bohemian Talmudist and rabbi; born 1760; died Sept. 25, 1820, in Prague, where he was dayyan and head of the yeshibah. Zacharias Frankel was one of his pupils.Ronsburg was the author of "Horah Gaber" (Prague, 1802), commentary...
SHALLUM – Biblical Data: 1. King of Israel who dethroned Zechariah, the last of Jehu's dynasty, and succeeded him. He was in turn dethroned by Menahem (II Kings xv. 10-16).2. Son of Josiah, King of Judah (Jer. xxii. 11). Probably the term...
SHEMARIAH B. MORDECAI – German tosafist of the first half of the twelfth century; pupil of the tosafist Isaac b. Asher. He was considered an especially eminent authority on religious rites ("ba'al ma'asim"), and seems to have written "posḳim"...
TANNAIM AND AMORAIM – The Name. The name "tanna" is derived from the Aramaic "teni" or "tena" (="to teach"), and designates in general a teacher of the oral law, and in particular one of the sages of the Mishnah, those teachers of the oral law whose...
TRANI – Family of scholars, members of which were prominent in Spain and the Levant.Aaron di Trani: Spanish tosafist; born in Castile; descendant of a family which produced several eminent Talmudists. He received his education under the...
YEẒIRAH, SEFER – The Power of the Name. The title of two esoteric books. Of these the older is also called "Hilkot Yeẓirah" (Rules of Creation), and is a thaumaturgical work that was popular in the Talmudic period. "On the eve of every Sabbath,...
ẒEBI HIRSCH B. SIMON – Lithuanian Talmudist; lived in the middle of the eighteenth century. He was dayyan and preacher in the community of Vitebsk during the rabbinates of R. Isaiah and R. Löb, and was known as one of the first Talmudic authorities in...