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Louis Ginzberg, Ph.D.

Professor of Talmud, Jewish Theological Seminary of America, New York City.

Contributions:
AMASA – Biblical Data: 1. According to II Sam. xvii. 25, the son of Ithra, an Israelite; I Chron. ii. 17 calls his father Jether, the Ishmaelite. He was a nephew of David and cousin of Absalom, who made him chief of the army that rose...
AMATHUS – A fortress near the Jordan, north of the river Jabbok and 21 miles south of Pella. At the beginning of the first century B.C., Amathus was an important fortress held by the despot Theodorus. About the year 98, Alexander Jannæus...
AMAZIAH – Biblical Data: 1. Priest at Beth-el in the reign of Jeroboam II. When the prophet Amos came to Beth-el, and there prophesied the death of Jeroboam and the captivity of Israel, Amaziah tried to expel him from the kingdom of...
AMAZIAH, KING OF JUDAH – Biblical Data: Son of Joash and father of Azariah (II Kings, xv. 1); came to the throne about 795 B.C. As soon as his kingdom was established he slew the murderers of his father (II Kings, xiv. 5), but contrary to custom...
AMBROSE – The Callinicum Riot. Church father and author; born about 340 at Treves; died 397 in Milan. This audacious prelate—who as bishop of Milan dared to say of his emperor, "The Emperor is in the Church, but not over the Church"—is...
AMEN – A word used at the conclusion of a prayer, or in other connections, to express affirmation, approval, or desire. It is derived from the Old Testament Hebrew, and is perhaps the most widely known word in human speech; being...
AMNON – 1. The eldest son of David and Ahinoam, the Jezreelitess (II Sam. iii. 2). As heir presumptive to the throne he was an object of envy and dislike to Absalom. The dishonor done by Amnon to his half-sister Tamar—the full sister of...
AMOS – Home and Occupation. —Biblical Data: Jewish prophet of the eighth century B.C.; date of birth and death unknown. Among the minor prophets there is none whose personality is so familiar as that of Amos. His name occurs not only...
AMRAM BEN SHESHNA – Head of the Sura Academy; died about 875. He was a pupil of Naṭronai II., Gaon of Sura, and was exceptionally honored with the title of Gaon within the lifetime of his teacher. Upon Naṭronai's death, about 857, the full title...
ANAH – 1. Mother of Aholibamah, one of the wives of Esau and daughter of Zibeon (Gen. xxxvi. 2, 14, 18, 25). The Septuagint, the Samaritan Pentateuch, and the Peshito read "son," identifying this Anah with No. 3 (see below). 2. Son of...
ANATH – The name of an ancient war-goddess of the western group of Semites. The Egyptian way of writing the name of the Phenician-Israelitish city "Beth-Anath" indicates that is here a goddess, and probably also in the name of the place...
ANDRONICUS, SON OF MESHULLAM – Lived in the second century B.C. According to Josephus ("Ant." xiii. 3, § 4), he was the representative of the Jews in their religious dispute with the Samaritans, which was held before King Ptolemy VI. Philometor, about the...
ANER – Biblical Data: One of the three Amorite lords of the hill-country of western Palestine confederate with Abram (Gen. xiv. 13). When a fugitive announced the plunder of Sodom and Gomorrah by the kings of the east, Abram with the...
ANTHROPOMORPHISM – Psychological Genesis. The ascription to the Deity of human forms or modes and of human feelings or moods, respectively. Such ascription is as old as religion. If, as Zeller correctly observes ("Philosophie der Griechen," 2d...
ANTICHRIST – Antichrist in Pauline Writings. Counterpart of the Messiah and opponent of God Himself; one of the most important personages in Christian eschatology. The name occurs for the first time in the Johannean Epistles (I John, ii. 18,...
ANTIGONUS, Son of John Hyrcanus – Born about 135 B.C., died 103. He was Hyrcanus' second son, and, though young, proved an able soldier during his father's lifetime. In conjunction with his brother Aristobulus, he besieged and captured Samaria about 109 (Soṭah,...
ANTIGONUS MATTATHIAS – Defies Rome. The last Hasmonean king of Judea; died 37 B.C. He was the second son of Aristobulus II., and together with his father was carried prisoner to Rome by Pompey in 63 B.C. Both escaped in 57, and returned to Palestine....
ANTIGONUS OF SOKO – The first scholar of whom Pharisaic tradition has preserved not only the name but also an important theological doctrine. He flourished about the first half of the third century B.C. According to the Mishnah, he was the disciple...
ANTINOMIANISM – The Law a Source of Sin. A term generally used to denote the opposition of certain Christian sects to the Law; that is, to the revelation of the Old Testa ment. The apostles were compelled, in response to the urging of Paul and...
ANTIOCHUS II – King of Syria (261-246 B.C.); date of birth unknown, but set by some chronologists at 286 B.C.; died 246. He is the first of the kings of this name referred to in the Bible. For many years he waged war against Ptolemy II.,...
ANTIOCHUS III. THE GREAT – King of Syria; born about 242 B.C.; reigned from 223; died 187. Eleven verses of Daniel (xi. 10-21) are supposed by critics to refer to the wars and fate of this monarch, who was the first Greek ruler to exercise considerable...
ANTIOCHUS IV., EPIPHANES – Silver Coin of Antiochus IV. Obverse: Head of Antiochus as Zeus, laureated. Reverse: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ ΘΕΟΥ ΕΠΙΦΑΝΟΥΣ ΝΙΚΗΠΟΡΟΥ. Zeus seated on throne, holding Nikē.(After Gardner, "Catalogue of Seleucid Coins.") Tetradrachm of...
ANTIOCHUS V., EUPATOR – Well-born"): King of Syria, son of Antiochus IV.; born 173 B.C.; died 162. He succeeded his father at the age of twelve (according to some at the age of nine), and reigned for two years (164-162 B.C.). Lysias made himself...
ANTIOCHUS VI. – King of Syria, son of Alexander Balas; died 142 B.C. Like his predecessor, Antiochus VI. was king only in name. He was proclaimed king while still a minor, 146 B.C., by Diodotus, called Tryphon, former general of Alexander...
ANTIOCHUS VII., SIDETES – King of Syria, son of Demetrius 1; born 164; died 129 B.C. In 138 B.C. he declared against the usurper Tryphon, who had taken the place of his brother Demetrius II., then a prisoner with the Parthians. One of the first acts of...