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Louis Ginzberg, Ph.D.

Professor of Talmud, Jewish Theological Seminary of America, New York City.

Contributions:
ANTIOCHUS VIII., GRYPHUS – King of Syria from 125 to 113 and from 111 to 96 B.C. Born in the year 141; died 96 B.C. For the first three years of his reign he was actively opposed by Alexander Zabinas, his rival for the throne. Of necessity, therefore, he...
ANTIOCHUS IX., CYZICENUS – King of Syria; died 95 B.C. He was the half-brother of Antiochus VIII., the preceding king. He rose against him in 113, and for two years was sole ruler of Syria. He was then, however, compelled to be satisfied with the district...
ANTIOCHUS XII., DIONYSUS – King of Syria. He was the youngest son of Grypos, and the last of the Seleucids to come in contact with Jews. In a campaign against Aretas, king of the Arabs, Antiochus intended to march through Judea, but Alexander Jannæus...
ANTIOCHUS, SCROLL OF – Book of the Hasmoneans." Name of a pseudepigraph, written in Hebrew, describing the revolt of the Maccabees, and depicting its glorious course. Saadia (892-942) was the first to make mention of this little book. He referred to...
ANTIPATER – Plots Against Aristobulus. Father of Herod I.; died 43 B.C. He was the son of Antipas, a convert to Judaism, who was governor of Idumæa under the reigns of Alexander Jannæus and his queen dowager Alexandra, and rendered himself...
ANTIPATRIS – City founded about the year 10 B.C. by Herod the Great in the plain of Kefar Saba. From a passage in Josephus it appears that there had been, in the time of Alexander Jannæus, a town on this site called Kefar Saba ("old...
ANTONINUS IN THE TALMUD – A Roman emperor, and the hero of Jewish legends that recount wonderful things about his attitude toward Jews and Judaism, and more particularly concerning his friendship with Rabbi. He is called "the father of " (Severus) by the...
ANTONINUS PIUS (Titus Aurelius Fulvus Boionius Arrius Antoninus) – Roman emperor; born in the year 86; died in 161; ruled from 138 until his death. The reign of this just and humane emperor came like a blessing to the Jews, particularly to those of Palestine. The religious persecutions of...
APHRAATES, THE PERSIAN SAGE – The name by which a Syrian homilist of the fourth century was known. His homilies, written between the years 337 and 345, are valuable to the Jewish historian; for it may be confidently asserted that no church father was ever so...
APOLLONIUS – One of the Judeans who, about 130 B.C., went to Rome to make a covenant or league of friendship with the Romans. He was called by Josephus, "the son of Alexander." See John Hyrcanus.Bibliography: Josephus. Ant. xiii. 9, § 2,...
APOSTOMUS – The Talmudic Account. Among five catastrophes said to have overtaken the Jews on the seventeenth of Tammuz, the Mishnah (Ta'anit iv. 6) includes "the burning of the Torah by Apostomus" (written also Postemus and Apostemus)....
AQUILA (Ακύλας, V02p034001.jpg) – Translator of the canonical Scriptures from Hebrew into Greek. He was by birth a Gentile from Pontus, and is said by Epiphanius to have been a connection by marriage of the emperor Hadrian and to have been appointed by him about...
ARABIA – Peninsula lying between the mainlands of Africa and Asia. It is separated from Africa on the south by the Red Sea and on the north by the Sinaitic peninsula and the strip of land which in modern times has been cut through for...
'ARAKIN – A treatise of the Mishnah, the Tosefta, and the Babylonian Talmud in the order Ḳodashim.Analysis of the Mishnah. In the Mishnah the treatise 'Arakin consists of nine chapters (peraḳim), forming in all fifty paragraphs...
ARAM – Location. —Biblical Data: The name of a group of kindred tribes scattered over portions of Syria, Mesopotamia, and Arabia. It is not the name of a country or of a politically independent people; for the Aramaic peoples were...
ARAMA, DAVID BEN ABRAHAM – Rabbinical author, born in Turkey, 1525; lived in Salonica. When barely twenty years old, he published "Perush 'al Sefer Mishneh Torah," a commentary on Maimonides' Yad ha-Ḥazaḳah (Salonica, 1546-1572; second edition, Amsterdam,...
ARAMA, ISAAC BEN MOSES – Spanish rabbi and author; born about 1420; died in Naples 1494. He was at first principal of a rabbinical academy at Zamora (probably his birthplace); then he received a call as rabbi and preacher from the community atTarragona,...
ARBELA – Biblical Data: In I Mace. ix. 2, Arbela is the district in which Mesaloth was situated, and through which ran the road to Gilgal (for which Josephus, "Ant." xii. 11, § 1, gives Galilee). It is probably to be identified with the...
ARCHELAUS – Son of Herod I.; king of Judea; born about 21 B.C., his mother being the Samaritan Malthace. At the age of fourteen he was sent to Rome for education, and, after a stay of two or three years, returned home with his brothers...
ARCHISYNAGOGUE – Synagogue-chief. The use of this name as the title of the officer who supervised matters pertaining to the religious services of the synagogue can be traced from the time of Jesus to about the year 300 (Pes. 49b). It occurs...
ARETAS – Nabatæan king; reigned from 9 B.C. to 40 of the common era. His full title, as given in the inscriptions, was "Aretas, King of the Nabatæans, Friend of his People." Being the most powerful neighbor of Judea, he frequently took...
ARIEL – Biblical Data: 1. Proper name of a man (Ezra viii. 16). The name is recognizable in the name of the Gadite clan Areli (Gen. xlvi. 16; Num. xxvi. 17, Ariel in LXX.), and occurs also in II Sam. xxiii. 20, R. V., and in I Chron....
ARIOCH – Biblical Data: 1. King of Ellasar, one of the four kings who invaded Palestine in the days of Abraham (Gen. xiv. 1, 9). The style of the chapter in Genesis is such as to make it probable that the narrative, though embellished,...
ARISTIDES MAREIANUS OF ATHENS – Christian apologist; lived about the middle of the second century. He is described by Jerome as having been a most eloquent man. Both the author and his work—a defense of Christianity addressed to the emperor, Antoninus...
ARISTO OF PELLA – A Christian controversialist who wrote against Judaism in the second century (135-170). He is the author of a "Dialogue Between Jason and Papiscus." The former is supposed to be a Jewish Christian, the latter an Alexandrian Jew....