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Louis Ginzberg, Ph.D.

Professor of Talmud, Jewish Theological Seminary of America, New York City.

Contributions:
ARISTOBULUS I – King of Judea, eldest son of John Hyrcanus; born about 140 B.C.; died 104. He succeeded his father in the office of high priest, while his mother (or, according to Wellhausen, his stepmother) was, by the will of his father, to...
ARISTOBULUS II. – Supports the Sadducees. King of Judea; born about 100 B.C.; died 49 B.C. He was the youngest son of Alexander Jannæus, whose political and religious predilections he inherited, while his elder brother, Hyrcanus II., seems to...
ARISTOBULUS III. – Last scion of the Hasmo nean royal house; brother of Mariamne and paternal grandson of Aristobulus II. He was a favorite of the people on account of his noble descent and handsome presence, and thus became an object of fear to...
ARISTOTLE IN JEWISH LEGEND – As the Greek who most impressed his influence upon the development of the Jewish mind, Aristotle is one of the few Gentiles with whom Jewish legend concerns itself. Some 200 years B.C., the Jewish philosopher Aristobulus, made...
ARK OF NOAH – Biblical Data: The vessel occupied by Noah and his family during the Deluge (Gen. vi. 14, vii., viii.).The English name should not be confounded with the Ark of the Covenant. The Hebrew name, , is the same as that of the chest...
ARMENIA – In the Bible. Formerly a kingdom of western Asia, now (1902) apportioned among Russia, Turkey, and Persia. According to the Peshiṭta and Targum Onkelos, the "Minni" of the Bible (Jer. li. 27) is Armenia—or rather a part of that...
ARMILUS – In later Jewish eschatology and legend, a king who will arise at the end of time against the Messiah, and will be conquered by him after having brought much distress upon Israel. The origin of this Jewish Antichrist (as he can...
ARNON – Biblical Data: A river and wady of eastern Palestine, the modern Wady Mojib (or Wady el-Mojib). The name means perhaps "noisy," a term which well describes the latter part of the course of the river. Its length is about 45...
ARTABAN V. – Last of the Parthian kings; died in the year 227. He was the son of Volageses V., whose throne he ascended about 216, after a struggle with his brother Volageses VI. For many years he successfully conducted a war against the...
ARTAPANUS – Historian; lived in Alexandria in the second century B.C. He wrote a history of the Jews, parts of which have been preserved in the writings of the church-fathers Eusebius ("Præparatio Evangelica," ix. 18, 23) and Clement of...
ARTEMION – Leader of the Jewish insurrection in Cyprus against Trajan, 117. There are but scanty details of this revolt. According to Roman sources, the Jews destroyed the capital of the island of Salamis and slew 240,000 Greeks. The...
ARYEH – A name commonly found among the Jews. The first person known to have borne it lived in the middle of the second century (Pes. 113b). His real name, however, was Judah; and "Aryeh," or to give the more exact and fuller form, "Gur...
ARYEH LOEB – Dayyan of Lublin, Poland, in the seventeenth century. He was the author of "Liḳḳuṭe ha-Or" (Collection of Light), in two volumes, the second of which, "Ha-Maor ha-Gadol" (The Greater Light), is as yet unpublished. The first,...
ASAHEL – Biblical Data: 1. Son of Zeruiah, sister of David (I Chron. ii. 16). He was noted as a swift runner. As one of the thirty heroes of David (II Sam. xxiii. 24; I Chron. xi. 26), he had command of the army in the fourth month (I...
ASAPH ("Mar Rab") – To judge from the title "Mar Rab," he was one of the Geonim (see Gaon). and, presumably, lived about the middle of the ninth century. The name occurs in a Cairo Genizah fragment, whose author was possibly Judah b. Barzilai of...
ASAPH BEN BERECHIAH – One of the captive Levites carried off to Assyria (I Chron. vi. 24 [A. V. 39]), and whom Arabic and later Jewish legend says was Vezir of Solomon (Al-Nadim, "Kitab-al-Fihrist," i. 19; Jellinek, "B. H." v. 23). To him is ascribed...
ASCENSION – The translation to heaven of a few chosen ones, either to remain there in lieu of dying, or merely to receive revelations and then to return to earth. The ascensions of Enoch (Gen. v. 24) and Elijah (II Kings ii 11) were of the...
ASCH, ABRAHAM – German rabbi and author; born at Posen; officiated as rabbi of Zell toward the end of the eighteenth century. He descended from a learned family which traced its pedigree to Meïr of Lublin. His father, Joseph, was rabbi of...
ASCHE, TOBIAH BEN EZEKIEL – German Talmudist; rabbi of Zempelburg at the beginning of the nineteenth century. His "'Eṭ Barzel" (Iron Pen) is an explanation of halakic legal themes, and was published posthumously (Berlin, 1832) by his son Gershon, rabbi of...
ASCHENBURG, SIMON B. ISAAC HA-LEVI – Talmudic scholar; lived at Frankfort-on-the-Main, later at Jerusalem, at which latter place he died about 1598. He was the author of a useful supercommentary upon Rashi's Pentateuch commentary entitled "Debeḳ Ṭob" (A Good Bond)....
ASCOLI, JACOB BEN ABRAHAM ROFE – Physician and payyeṭan; lived at Camerino, Italy, perhaps at Ascoli, in the second half of the fifteenth century. Two Reshuts for Nishmat of his are printed in the MaḦzor Romania—(1) For the Day of Atonement; , etc. ("They will...
ASHER – Biblical Data: The eighth son of the patriarch Jacob, and the traditional progenitor of the tribe Asher. He is represented as the younger brother of Gad; these two being the sons of Zilpah, the handmaid of Leah (Gen. xxx. 10 et...
ASHER, ANSHEL BEN ISAAC – Preacher at Prenzlau, Prussia, and teacher in the school founded there by his father. In 1701 he published at Dessau a collection of discourses under the title of "Shemenah LaḦmo"—with reference to his name "Asher" ( ; see Gen....
ASHER, ANSHEL BEN MOSES BAER – Talmudist; lived in the second half of the eighteenth century. He wrote two works: "Ben Emunim" (Son of Faith), Fürth, 1785: and "Ḥiddat Shimshon" (Samson's Riddle), Fürth, 1785. The former is a homiletic commentary on the...
ASHER, ENSEL B. JUDAH LOEB – Chief of the bet din at Slonim, Lithuania, in the beginning of the eighteenth century. He wrote two works: "Otot le-Mo'adim" (Signs for the Feasts) and "Baruk mi-Banim Asher" (Blessed Be Asher Above Sons; Deut. xxxiii. 24). The...