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Louis H. Gray, Ph.D.

Assistant Editor of the "Orientalische Bibliographie"; formerly on the editorial staff of "The New International Encyclopedia"; Newark, N. J.

Contributions:
BENFEY, THEODOR – German Sanskritist and comparative philologist; born at Nörten, Hanover, Jan. 28, 1809; became a convert to Christianity in 1848; died June 26, 1881. His father, who had seven children besides Theodor, was a Jewish merchant...
BLOOMFIELD, MAURICE – Professor of Sanskrit and comparative philology in Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md.; born at Bielitz, Austrian Silesia, February 23, 1855; emigrated to America in 1867. He studied at Chicago and Furman, (S. C.)...
BRÉAL, MICHEL JULES ALFRED – French philologist; born of French parentage at Landau, Rhenish Bavaria, March 26, 1832. He received his education at Weissenburg, Metz, and Paris. In the last-named city, after his studies at the Lycée Louis-le-Grand were...
GOLDSCHMIDT, SIEGFRIED – German Orientalist; born at Cassel Oct. 29, 1844; died at Strasburg Jan. 31, 1884. He was educated at the universities of Leipsic, Berlin, and Tübingen, graduating (Ph.D.) in 1867. His doctor's dissertation, "Der VIIte...
HITTITES – A race of doubtful ethnic and linguistic affinities that occupied, from the sixteenth century until 717 B.C., a territory of vague extent, but which probably centered about Kadesh on the Orontes and Carchemish on the upper...
LÉVI, SYLVAIN – French Orientalist; born at Paris March 28, 1863. He received his education at the Ecole des Hautes Etudes, where he became "agrégé ès lettres" in 1886. Here, too, three years later he was appointed "maître de conférences" in...
MEDEBA – A town east of the Dead Sea and a few miles south of Heshbon. It was wrested from the Moabites by Sihon, King of the Amorites (Num. xxi. 30); and after the conquest of Palestine it was assigned, together with the plain in which...
MOAB – District and nation of Palestine. The etymology of the word is very uncertain. The earliest gloss is found in the Septuagint, Gen. xix. 37, which explains the name, in obvious allusion to the account of Moab's parentage, as ἐκ...
OPPERT, GUSTAV SOLOMON – German Orientalist; brother of Jules and Ernst Jacob Oppert; born at Hamburg July 30, 1836. He was educated at the universities of Bonn, Leipsic, Berlin, and Halle, where he devoted his attention especially to the history and...
OPPERT, JULES – French Orientalist; born at Hamburg, Germany, July 9, 1825; died in Paris, Aug. 19, 1905. He was educated at the "Johanneum" in his native city, and in 1844 studied law at Heidelberg. Becoming interested in Oriental studies, he...
PAHLAVI LITERATURE, JEWS IN – In the "Dinkard." The Pahlavi or Middle Persian literature, extending approximately from the third to the tenth century C.E., is devoted mainly to the theology of Zoroastrianism. In its polemics, therefore, it naturally mentions...
PETRA – Capital of Edom in northern Arabia, lying in a rocky valley surrounded by mountains, of which the highest is Mount Hor. The name is apparently a Greek translation of the original Hebrew designation of the place, "Sela" (=...
PHARAOH – The term applied in the Old Testament to the kings of Egypt. The word is derived from the Egyptian "pr-'o" (= "great house"), which originally denoted the royal palace with the buildings and grounds attached to it, although the...
PHENICIA – A district of somewhat indefinite limits stretching for about 200 miles along the east coast of the Mediterranean and extending inland from five to fifteen miles. The eastern boundary was the Lebanon range, while Ptolemy...
SABEANS – The inhabitants of the ancient kingdom of Sheba in southeastern Arabia, known from the Bible, classical writers, and native inscriptions. The genealogies of Genesis give three pedigrees for Sheba, the eponymous ancestor of the...
SACHS, JULIUS – American educator; born at Baltimore July 6, 1849; educated at Columbia University and Rostock (Ph.D. 1867). He founded the Collegiate Institute, New York, and is now(1905) also professor of secondary education in Teachers'...
SARDIS – Ancient city of Asia Minor and capital of Lydia; situated on the Pactolus at the northern base of Mount Tmolus, about sixty miles from Smyrna. The town is first mentioned by Æschylus ("Persæ," ed. Kirchhoff, line 47), and may be...
SARMAD, MOHAMMED SA'ID – Persian poet of Jewish birth; flourished in the first half of the seventeenth century. He was born at Kashan of a rabbinical family, but later embraced Mohammedanism, and went to India as a merchant. In the city of Tatta,...
SATRAP – Ruler of a province in the governmental system of ancient Persia. The Old Persian form of the word, "khshathrapavan" (protector of the kingdom), occurs twice in the inscriptions of Darius Hystaspes at Behistun (iii. 14, 55) with...
SENNACHERIB – King of Assyria, 705-681 B.C.; son and successor of Sargon. His reign was a warlike one, yet it was marked by grandeur in architecture and art. Almost immediately after his accession to the throne Sennacherib was obliged to...
SHUSHAN – Ancient capital of Susiana or Elam, and the winter residence of the kings of Persia; situated between the Choaspes (modern Ab-i Kerkhah) and the Eulæus (the "Ulai" of Dan. viii. 2; modern Shaur), fifteen miles southeast of...
STEIN, MARC AUREL – Hungarian Orientalist and archeologist; born at Budapest in 1862; educated at Vienna, Tübingen, Oxford, and London. In 1888 he was appointed registrar of the Punjab University at Lahore, and principal of the Oriental College in...
VÁMBÉRY, ARMINIUS – Hungarian traveler and Orientalist; born at Duna-Szerdahely, on the island of Schütt, near Presburg, March 19, 1832. He was apprenticed at the age of twelve to a ladies' dressmaker; but after becoming tutor to the son of the...
WINTERNITZ, MORIZ – Austrian Orientalist; born at Horn Dec. 23, 1863. He received his earliest education in the gymnasium of his native town, and in 1880 entered the University of Vienna, receiving the degree of doctor of philosophy in 1886. In...