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Lewis N. Dembitz, D.H.L.

Counselor at Law, Louisville, Ky.

Contributions:
FRAUD AND MISTAKE – Where in a transaction one of the parties loses by the fraud, i.e., the misrepresentation, of the other, or by his suppression of the truth, the law gives relief either by rescinding the contract or by awarding damages. In some...
GARNISHMENT – In law, the process by which A collects his demand from his debtor, B, by attaching money owing to B from a third person; hence called "Dritt-Arrest" in German law. The power of a court to enforce a judgment against B by...
GELILAH – The wrapping of the scroll of the Law in its vestments after the lesson has been read from it. In the German ritual it follows the "hagbahah" (lifting up), and its performance is deemed a lesser honor than that of the latter; in...
GESHEM – One of the Hebrew words for "rain," applied mostly to the heavy rains which occur in Palestine in the fall and winter. This half of the year is called in the Mishnah "yemot ha-geshamin" (days of rains). In the liturgy of the...
GE'ULLAH – The name of the benediction which follows the reading of the Shema'. It refers to God's redemption of Israel from Egyptian bondage, and closes with the words "who hath redeemed ["ga'al"] Israel." The forms for the evening and...
GOMEL BENSHEN – The pronouncing of the benediction for escape from danger' after passing through the desert; after confinement in prison; after severe sickness; and after crossing the sea and arriving safely in port. From the verses "Men should...
GORING OX – Two passages in Exodus treat of an ox doing harm: the first of harm to a person (xxi. 28-32); the second to the ox of another owner (ib. 35-36). The verb used in the first passage is "nagaḥ" (to gore); that in the second,...
GOVERNMENT – Biblical Data: The only kind of political institution extant among the Israelites before the time of the Kings was the division into tribes, according to tradition twelve in number corresponding to the sons of Jacob, who were...
GRACE AT MEALS – Benedictions before and after meals. In the prayer-book of the Spanish Jews grace after meals is called "bendicion de la mesa" (benediction of the table); the German Jews speak of "benschen," a corruption of the Latin...
GUARDIAN AND WARD – Appointment. Page from the First Edition of David Ḳimḥi's Commentary on the Prophets, Printed by Solomon ibn AlḲabiẓ at Guadalajara, 1482.The Biblical , or "nursing-father" (Isa. xlix. 23; Esth. ii. 7), is unknown to the...
HALLEL – The name given in the Talmud and in rabbinical writings to Ps. cxiii.-cxviii. considered as a single composition, which they undoubtedly are. They are more distinctively known as the "Hallel of Egypt," as distinguished from Ps....
HALLELUIAH – A doxological expression signifying "Praise ye the Lord," the sacred name being shortened to its first two letters. Except in Ps. cxxxv. 3 it is found only at the beginnings or ends of psalms; namely, civ., cv., end; cvi.,...
HAZKARAT NESHAMOT – Memorial service, held, according to the German ritual, after the readings of the Law and the Prophets in the morning service on the eighth day of Pesaḥ, the second of Pentecost, the eighth of Sukkot (Shemini 'Aẓeret), and the...
HOSHA'NA RABBAH – The popular name for the seventh day of the Feast of Booths (Sukkot); the day on which the exclamation "Hosha'na!" (save now!) is often repeated, while on the other days of the feast it is used but sparingly. While the name...
HYKSOS – Name of a line of Egyptian kings, occurring in a passage of Manetho quoted by Josephus ("Contra Ap." § 14). It is said that they ruled for 511 years. Manetho explains "hyk" as "kings" (which Josephus disputes) and "sos" as...
INDEMNITY – That by which a surety who has been compelled to pay the debt of his principal is reimbursed, either by the principal or from other sources. The rabbinic law recognizes the surety's right to reimbursement (B. B. 174a, b), and...
INFANCY, LEGAL ASPECT OF – Infants, the deaf, and those of unsound mind are always named together, as not liable for torts, nor punishable for offenses, nor competent as witnesses (see Accident; Assault and Battery; Evidence). For the difficulties...
JOINT OWNERS – In the Mishnah joint owners are known as "shuttafin." When the joint owners are coheirs the Mishnah speaks of them as "the brothers"; but the relation arises apart from common descent, as when two or more people make a purchase...
JURISDICTION – The authority of a court of law to decide cases of certain kinds. This depends on the kind of matter in dispute; on the locality of the subject; on the residence of the parties; and on their willingness to submit themselves to...
ḲEDUSHSHAH – The third benediction of the 'Amidah is called "Holiness of the Name" (R. H. iv. 4), to distinguish it from "Holiness of the Day," the benediction which refers to the Sabbath or a festival; but "Ḳedushshah" in popular speech...
KENTUCKY – One of the south central states of the United States; admitted in 1792. Its most important Jewish community is at Louisville (population, in 1900, 204,731, of which about 7,000 are Jews). Two brothers named Heymann, or Hyman,...
ḲIDDUSH – Ceremony and prayer by which the holiness of the Sabbath or of a festival is proclaimed. For the Sabbath the Scripture imposes this duty in the words: "Remember the Sabbath day to keep it holy," which, according to Shab. 86a,...
LANDLORD AND TENANT – I. Farming Land. The Mishnah and later authorities speak of two kinds of tenants—the "aris," or the tenant on shares, the landlord receiving "one-half, one-third, or one-fourth," and the "ḥoker," or the tenant at a fixed rental,...
LOANS – In the Bible. In the commonwealth of Israel, as among other nations of antiquity, loans of money, or of corn or like commodities, were made as a matter of favor by the wealthy to those standing in need, and but seldom, if ever,...
MASTER AND SERVANT – The Pentateuch lays down the rule, in favor of the workman, that "the wages of him that is hired shall not abide with thee all night until the morning" (Lev. xix. 13); the preceding words of the same verse, "thou shalt not...