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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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Moses Beer,

Berlin, Germany.

Contributions:
ÆMILIUS, PAULUS – Hebrew bibliographer, publisher, and teacher; born at Rödlsee, Germany, probably in the first quarter of the sixteenth century; embraced Christianity in Rome; died 1575. He was employed in copying Hebrew manuscripts, and for...
AGATE – Biblical Data: A precious stone, mentioned four times in the Authorized Version of the Bible—twice as the translation of kadkod (Isa. liv. 12, Ezek. xxvii. 16), and twice of shebo (Ex. xxviii. 19, xxxix. 12). The Agate derives...
AGEDA, ALLEGED CONFERENCE OF – In an English pamphlet, entitled "A Narrative of the Proceedings of a Great Council of Jews Assembled on the Plain of Ageda in Hungary, about ThirtyLeagues from Buda, to Examine the Scriptures Concerning Christ, on the Twelfth...
AKRABAH – A city situated one day's journey north from Jerusalem (Ma'as Sheni, v. 2; Beẓah, 5a, where the spelling is ). It is probably identical with Akrabattene mentioned by Josephus ("B. J." iii. 3, § 5), which in the years preceding...
ALASHKAR – A Spanish-Jewish family whose name was probably derived from an Arabic word meaning "red."The first member of the Alashkar family whose name has been handed down is Samuel, the physician, who lived at Seville toward the middle...
ALATRI, CRESCENZO – Italian writer; born at Rome, 1825; died February 12, 1897. He was educated in the Talmud Torah of his native city, and graduated as rabbi, but never held any office. Alatri was the author of a "History of the Jews in Rome,"...
ALATRI, GIACOMO – Italian banker and philanthropist; son of Samuel Alatri; born at Rome in 1833; died there March 9, 1889. He was for several years president of the Banca Romana, which position he resigned when, in 1881, his propositions for the...
ALATRI, SAMUEL – Italian politician, communal worker, and orator; born at Rome in 1805; died there May 20, 1889. For more than sixty years he led the Jewish community of his native city, and bore the brunt of its contests for religious and...
ALBERTI, CONRAD – German novelist, dramatist, critic, and actor; born at Breslau, July 9, 1862. Having finished his education in his native city, he went to Berlin, where he became an actor. After a few years he returned to his studies and...
ALDUBI, ABRAHAM BEN ISMAIL – Talmudic scholar and author, who flourished in Spain in the first half of the fourteenth century. He was a pupil of Solomon ben Adret and the teacher of Jeroham ben Meshullam. He wrote many novellæ and responsa, which, however,...
ALEXANDER DE FRANCISCIS, HEBRÆUS – Author and bishop at Forli; lived in Rome in the sixteenth century. His Jewish name was Elisha de Roma. After his baptism he entered the order of the Dominican friars, in which he distinguished himself as an orator. Pope Clement...
ALEXANDER, ISAAC – German author; lived in South Germany in the second half of the eighteenth century, and wrote on philosophical subjects from a rationalistic point of view. His works include: "Von dem Dasein Gottes, die Selbstredende Vernunft,"...
ALEXANDERSON (BEN ALEXANDER), DANIEL – Theological writer of the seventeenth century. He embraced the Christian faith at Rouen (France) on April 21, 1621, and wrote in Syriac (rabbinic?) an open letter, setting forth the reason of his abandoning Judaism and calling...
ALKAN, ALPHONSE – French printer, bibliographer, and author; born in Paris, 1809, died at Neuilly-sur-Seine, 1889. He first worked as a practical printer, then wrote for various typographical and bibliographical reviews, and subsequently was...
ALNAQUA – An important family of Spanish Jews, the first mention of whom occurs late in the twelfth century. In Hebrew the name is written or . It is the same as or , though Steinschneider seems to be of a different opinion. In modern...
ALNAQUA – An important family of Spanish Jews, the first mention of whom occurs late in the twelfth century. In Hebrew the name is written or . It is the same as or , though Steinschneider seems to be of a different opinion. In modern...
AMBRON, AMBRAN – An Italian family, prominent since 1492, at which period they emigrated from Spain ("Rev. Ét. Juives," ix. 70, 74). Of this family the following are known to have lived in Rome: Shem-Ṭob (1539); Zerahiah (1536); Judah ben...
AMBRON, SHABBETHAI – A philosophical writer; lived in Rome in the first half of the eighteenth century. His life-work was a book on the universe, with the somewhat ambitious title "Pancosmosophia." It was first mentioned in the Venice "Giornale de'...
AMITTAI – Father of the prophet Jonah (II Kings, xiv. 25; Jonah, i. 1). According to rabbinical sources (Yer. Suk. v. 55a; Gen. R. xcviii.; Yalḳ., Jonah, § 550) Amittai came from the tribe of Zebulon and lived at Zarephath. There is a...
AMRAM, ḤAYYIM – Commentator who lived in Palestine in the first half of the nineteenth century. He published "Ḳorban PesaḦ" (Passover Offering), a commentary on the Passover Haggadah (Leghorn, 1836).Bibliography: Steinschneider, Cat. Bodl. col....
AMRAM, NATHAN BEN ḤAYYIM – Palestinian scholar and author who flourished at Hebron in the second quarter of the nineteenth century. Amram was selected by the Sephardic communities of Palestine as European agent to collect moneys for them. He wrote: ("The...
ANAW, BENJAMIN B. ABRAHAM – A liturgical poet, Talmudist, and commentator of the thirteenth century; older brother of Zedekiah b. Abraham. Perhaps the most gifted and learned of his Roman contemporaries. Although chiefly a poet, Anaw possessed a thorough...
ANAW, ZEDEKIAH B. ABRAHAM – Author of ritualistic works; younger brother of Benjamin b. Abraham Anaw; lived at Rome in the thirteenth century; received his Talmudic training not only in Rome, but also in Germany, where he was the pupil of R. Jacob of...
ANGOULÊME – Town in the department of Charente, France, where, about 1240, a controversy took place between Nathan ben Joseph Official, and the bishop of Angoulême. In a letter to the bishops of Angoulême, Pope Gregory IX. (1227-41)...
ANSCHEL, SOLOMON – German author; lived in southern Germany at the end of the eighteenth and the beginning of the nineteenth century. He wrote "Ueber den Commerz Zwischen Seele u. Körper" (a translation from the Hebrew), Frankfort-on-the-Main,...