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Moses Beer,

Berlin, Germany.

Contributions:
ANTIBLA – A family of proselytes living at Jerusalem in the first century B.C., which had been in prosperous circumstances, but was afterward reduced to poverty. From allusions to them contained in four Talmudic passages, in which the...
ANTONIA, PRINCESS OF WÜRTEMBERG – A Christian Hebraist and cabalistic scholar, born in the first half of the seventeenth century; died 1679. One of the effects of the Reformation in Germany was an increased interest in the Hebrew language among Christian...
APOTHEKER, DAVID – Judæo-German writer and printer at Philadelphia, Pa.; born in Ponievyezh, gov. Kovno, Russia, Aug. 28, 1855. In 1868 he went to Vilkomir, where he studied under the guidance of Moses Loeb Lilienblum; in 1877 he became involved...
ARENDT, OTTO – German economist, author, and member of the Prussian Diet; born in Berlin, Oct. 10, 1854. He graduated as Ph.D. from the Berlin University and soon entered on a literary career, identifying himself with the Ultraconservative...
ARNHEIM, FISCHEL – Bavarian deputy and lawyer; born at Baireuth, Bavaria, Feb. 23, 1812; died there Jan. 31, 1864. He was destined by his parents for a commercial career. They gave him a thorough Jewish education, and he was at a very early age...
ASCHER, SAUL – German author and translator; born at Berlin Feb. 8, 1767; died there Dec. 8, 1822. He began his literary career as an advocate of Jewish emancipation; gradually extending his activities to general topics, chiefly historical,...
ASHER, ABRAHAM (ADOLF) – Publisher, bibliographer, and editor; born at Kammin, Prussia, Aug. 23, 1800; died at Venice, Sept. 1, 1853. He was destined for a commercial career, and was sent for this purpose to England. He settled afterward as a jewelry...
ASHKENAZI, BENJAMIN – Russian communal worker and philanthropist; born in 1824; died at Grodno in 1894. He was the son of Joshua Heschel Ashkenazi, rabbi of Lublin, who was a descendant of Ḥakam Ẓebi. Ashkenazi settled at Grodno, where he became the...
ASHKENAZI, JOSEPH EDELS – Palestinian commentator and cabalist; lived at the beginning of the nineteenth century at Jerusalem and Padua; died at Safed. He was sent as European agent ("meshullaḦ") from Palestine to collect money for the Palestinian poor....
ASHKENAZI, JUDAH B. JOSEPH – Turkish Talmudist: born at Smyrna, where he became chief rabbi; died there about 1812. He wrote: (1) "MaḦneh Yehudah" (Judah's Camp), Salonica, 1793—discussions on the "Ṭur" and on "Bet Joseph, Ḥoshen Mishpaṭ"; (2) "Yad Yehudah"...
ASHKENAZI, JUDAH SAMUEL B. JACOB – A commentator, ritualist, and liturgical editor; born in the second half of the eighteenth century; lived at Tabareeyeh (Tiberias), Palestine, whence he was sent as communal traveling agent to Europe. He afterward settled at...
ASHKENAZI (TIKTIN), JUDAH B. SIMON SOFER FRANKFURT – Polish commentator on the ShulḦan 'Aruk; officiated as "dayyan" (assistant rabbi) at Tikotzin, Poland, in the first half of the eighteenth century. He wrote ("Explaining Well"), which comments briefly on the first three parts of...
ASHKENAZI, NISSIM ABRAHAM – Talmudic author; lived in the first half of the nineteenth century in Smyrna, where he officiated. He was the author of "NeḦmad le-Mareh" (Graceful of Appearance), which contains methodological rules on the treatises Berakot and...
ASHKENAZI, RAPHAEL BEN JUDAH – A rabbi of Smyrna, where he died in 1830. He wrote: (1) "Mareh 'Enayim" (Sight to the Eyes), Salonica, 1816—an index to the Talmud and to Rashi and Tosafot, after the model of Benvenisti's "Sefer Keneset ha-Gedolah"; (2) "Mareh...
ASHKENAZI, SAMUEL B. ELIESER – Author of novellæ to the Talmud; lived at Opatow, Poland, in the second half of the sixteenth century. He was a pupil of Meïr b. Gedaliah of Lublin and wrote "Ḥiddushim," novellæ on the Talmudic treatises Ketubot and Ḳiddushin,...
ASHKENAZI, SIMON, OF GALICIA – Rabbi of Dobromil and Jaroslav (Galicia) at the end of the eighteenth and the beginning of the nineteenth century. He was a disciple of R. Jacob Isaac of Lublin (died 1815), and carried on a learned correspondence with Jacob...
ASTRUC, JEAN – Physician and founder of modern Pentateuch criticism; born at Sauve, France, March 19, 1684; died in Paris May 5, 1766. His father was a Huguenot, but became a Catholic. He studied medicine and became professor of anatomy in...
ATTAR, IBN – A family name among the Sephardic Jews. In Arabic the word "attar" means "apothecary" or "spice-dealer"; but it is found Hebraized, and applied in its original sense as an epithet, as early as 1150 (Harkavy, "Meassef Niddaḥim,"...
AUERBACH, ISAAC LEVIN – A German preacher, educator, and author; born at Inowraclaw, Prussia, March 21, 1791; died at Dessau July 5, 1853. He was the son of Levin Isaac Auerbach, rabbi of Inowraclaw, and brother of Baruch Auerbach, the well-known...
AUSPITZ, JACOB – Geographical writer; lived at Budapest, Hungary, in the first quarter of the nineteenth century. He was the author of "Beër ha-Luḥot" (Explanation of the Tablets), consisting of five Biblical maps, copied from a Latin source,...
AUSTERLITZ – Name of a Jewish family. As is the case with all names derived from places, the surname "Austerlitz" does not necessarily signify that all the persons so named belong to one family. It denotes that an ancestor of the person came...
AVILA, SAMUEL BEN MOSES BEN ISAAC DE – Rabbi and preacher at Mequenez, Morocco, and later at Salé, Morocco, born in the first-named place in 1687 or 1688. He published, under the title of "Ozen Shemuel," a collection of sermons: Five on "Repentance," preached on the...
AVILA, SAMUEL BEN SOLOMON DE – Talmudist; lived at Morocco in the eighteenth century. He was the author of "'Oz we-Hadar" (Might and Splendor), Leghorn, 1855, containing novellæ on the Talmudic treatises Shebu'ot, 'Abodah Zarah, and Horayot.Bibliography:...
AYYAS, JACOB MOSES – Son of Judah Ayyas; lived at Jerusalem, whence he was sent abroad to collect money for the Palestine poor. In 1783 he visited Algiers, where he was received with great honor. Following a call to Ferrara, he settled there as...
AYYAS, JUDAH – A commentator and casuist; born in North Africa about 1690; died at Jerusalem Sept. 11, 1760. He pursued his Talmudic studies at Algiers under the supervision of Solomon Ẓeror, rabbi of that city. From 1728 to 1756 Ayyas...