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Max Schloessinger, Ph.D.

Librarian and Lecturer on Biblical Exegesis, Hebrew Union College, Cincinnati, Ohio.

Contributions:
CALF, GOLDEN – Biblical Data: A portable image overlaid with gold, made by Aaron at Mount Sinai (Ex. xxxii.). As the text stands, it narrates how Moses had gone up into the mountain to receive the Ten Words, and remained forty days. When the...
CREMATION – Biblical Data: The act of burning the dead. Cremation was not the prevailing custom among the ancient Hebrews, as it was among other contemporary nations (see J. Grimm, "Kleine Schriften," ii. 226). It was, however, not unknown...
DELMEDIGO – A family of German descent. About the end of the fourteenth century its founder, Judah Delmedigo, emigrated to the island of Crete, whose inhabitants were mostly of German origin (compare Joseph Solomon Delmedigo, "Elim," p. 30,...
DEPPING, GEORGES BERNARD – German-French historian; born in Münster, Germany, May 11, 1784; died in Paris Sept. 5, 1853. He went to Paris in 1803, where he lived as teacher and writer. Besides other historical works, he wrote: "Les Juifs dans le Moyen...
DISTAFF – A stick on which flax or wool was wound ready for hand-spinning before the spinning-wheel came into use. It was held under the left arm, or stuck in the girdle, of the spinner. The fibers were drawn from it and twisted by the...
EURYDEMUS BEN JOSE – One of the sons of Tanna Jose b. Ḥalafta. His name has been transmitted in the most varying forms: "Awradimus" ( ), "Abirodimus" ( ) "Abdimus" ( ), and "Wradimus" ( ). As a basic form Bacher assumes "Eurydemus" (compare the...
EVIL-MERODACH – Son of Nebuchadnezzar, and third ruler of the New Babylonian empire; reigned from 561 to 560 B.C. His name in Babylonian is "Amil-Marduk" or "Avel-Marduk"= "man," or "servant, of Marduk." No personal or historical inscriptions...
FERRER, VICENTE – Spanish Dominican preacher; born at Valencia Jan. 23, 1350; died at Vannes, France, April 5, 1419. Basnage supposes that he was of Jewish descent ("Histoire des Juifs," xiv. 701). He entered the Dominican order in Valencia Feb....
FEZ – Capital of the province of Fez in the sultanate of Morocco; built in the year 808 by Imam Idris II., who founded in Morocco the first Shiite state. A small wadi, known under various names, divides the city into two parts, Old...
GALATIA – An inland district of Asia Minor, and, after 25 B.C., a province of the Roman empire. There was a Jewish settlement there, which may have been founded by Antiochus the Great, who sent many Jewish families to Asia Minor as...
GOLDZIHER, IGNAZ – Hungarian Orientalist; born in Stuhlweissenburg, Hungary, June 22, 1850; attended the gymnasium in his native town, and continued his studies at the universities of Budapest, Berlin, Leipsic (Ph.D., 1870), and Leyden. In 1872 he...
ḤAFZ (IBN AL-BIRR) AL-ḲUṬI – Author of the eleventh century, or earlier; according to Steinschneider, possibly identical with Ḥafz (Ḥefeẓ) b. Yaẓliaḥ. Ḥafz al-Ḳuṭi translated the Book of Psalms into Arabic rime. Moses ibn Ezra, in his "Kitab al-Muḥaḍarah,"...
ḤAGIZ, SAMUEL BEN JACOB BEN SAMUEL, OF FEZ – Father of Jacob Ḥagiz and grand-father of Moses Ḥagiz; according to an epitaph, died in 1634. He edited Solomon Duran's "Tif'eret Yisrael" about 1596, and wrote: "Debar Shemu'el," a haggadic commentary, especially on Deuteronomy...
HAI BEN DAVID – Dayyan, and later gaon in Pumbedita from 890 to 897. He is mentioned in Isaac ibn Ghayyat's "Halakot," in connection with the curious Bagdad custom of reciting the "'Abodah" on the morning of the Day of Atonement, which custom...
HAI BEN NAHSHON – Gaon of Sura (889-896) and president of the school of Nehardea. He was, according to a manuscript in the Vatican Library, the author of opinions on many Talmudical tractates. He protested against reciting "Kol Nidre" (Rosh, on...
HAI BEN SHERIRA – Gaon of Pumbedita; born in 939; died March 28, 1038. He received his Talmudic education from his father, Sherira, and in early life acted as his assistant in teaching (Schechter, "Saadyana," p. 118). In his forty-fourth year he...
HAIDA, ABRAHAM BEN SIMEON – Printer in Prague between 1612 and 1628; son of Simeon Haida. In 1610, with Moses Uṭiẓ and Gershon Popers, he assisted in the printing of Samuel Laniado's "Keli Ḥemdah." In 1612 he was associated with Moses Uṭiẓ in the printing...
HALAKOT – The body of religious law which constitutes one of the three main divisions of Jewish oral tradition. Later, the singular form "halakah" was generally adopted, even in reference to a whole collection of halakot, just as...
HAMMERSCHLAG, JOSEPH (NATHAN NAT'A ḤAZZAN BEN MOSES NAPHTALI HIRSCH) – Moravian cabalist; lived in the seventeenth century. He was the author of the following: "Or ha-Ganuz," commentary on part of the Zohar (begun in 1648); "Sefer Mo'ade ha-Shem," a treatise on the calendar, beginning with the year...
HAMMON – 1. A place in the territory of Asher, mentioned in Josh. xix. 28, between Rehob and Kanah. It is believed that the ruins now called "Ummel-'Amud" (or "'Awamid") occupy its site.2. A city allotted to the Levites out of the tribe...
ḤANNELES (ḤANELES), JUDAH LÖB BEN MEÏR – Rabbinical author of the sixteenth century. He wrote "Wayiggash Yehudah" (Lublin, 1599), a commentary on Jacob ben Asher's "Ṭur Oraḥ Ḥayyim," printed together with the text of the "Ṭur." In an eighteenth-century Dyhernfurth...
HANNO, RAPHAEL – German writer; born in Hanau 1791; died in Heidelberg 1871. He embraced Christianity and became professor (1824) of Oriental languages at the University of Heidelberg, which position he filled till his death. He wrote: "Die...
HAPAX LEGOMENA – Biblical Data: Words or forms of words that occur once only. There are about 1,500 of these in the Old Testament; but only 400 are, strictly, "hapax legomena"; i.e., are either absolutely new coinages of roots, or can not be...
HARDT, HERMANN VON DER – German Protestant theologian and philologist; born at Melle, Westphalia, Nov. 15, 1660; died Feb. 28, 1746. He studied at Osnabrück, Jena, and Hamburg, and became professor of Oriental languages at the University of Helmstädt...
ḤASDAI I. – Third exilarch of the Arabian period; died in 730. He was a descendant of Bostanai I. and a successor of Ḥanina b. Adai. His eldest son was Solomon b. Ḥasdai, who also, after his father's death, became exilarch. His second son,...