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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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BORODAVKA – Lithuanian farmer of taxes and distillery privileges; lived in the sixteenth century at Brest-Litovsk. He is first mentioned in a grant issued by King Sigismund August, Jan. 1, 1560, to David Shmerlevich of Brest-Litovsk, and...
CENSORSHIP OF HEBREW BOOKS – Censorship is the regulation, first decreed by the Church and then carried out either by that institution or by the state, whereby books (both manuscript and printed) were examined for the purpose of ascertaining whether they...
DEMIDOV, PAVEL PAVLOVICH – Prince of San-Donato, Russian jurist, and philanthropist; born in 1839; died in 1885. He was a member of a well-known Russian family of nobles whose pedigree is traced as far back as 1672. Soon after his graduation from the...
DEUTSCH, CAROLINE – German novelist; born at Namesto, a small Hungarian village, Feb. 23, 1846. Her father, a rabbi, was German in culture, and the German language and spirit prevailed in the family. While still very young, Caroline began to write...
GORDON, MICHEL – Judæo-German poet and Hebrew writer; born at Wilna Nov. 4, 1823; died at Kiev Dec. 26, 1890. While at the bet ha-midrash he wrote his first poetry and prose. Gordon was a personal friend of Michael Lebensohn, Wolf Kaplan, and...
KUTAIS – Russian city in the government of the same name; the scene of a trial for blood accusation in 1877. On April 16 of that year Sarra Modebadzé, a lame girl, six years old, of the village of Perevisi, visited the house of a...
LINETZKI, ISAAC JOEL – Russo-Yiddish humorist; born at Vinnitza Sept. 8, 1839, in which town his father, Joseph Linetzki, was a Ḥasidic rabbi. At the age of eighteen Isaac ran away from home and went to Odessa. Thence he intended to go to Breslau to...
WOLFF, OSKAR LUDWIG BERNHARD – German improvisator and novelist; born at Altona July 26, 1799; died at Jena Sept. 13, 1851. He early manifested an unusual aptitude for acquiring languages, and while still in college he translated Shakespeare's "Macbeth" into...
WOLLHEIM, ANTON EDUARD W. DA FONSECA – German playwright and journalist; born in Hamburg Feb. 12, 1810; died in Berlin Oct. 24, 1884; studied at the University of Berlin (Ph.D. 1831). Shortly after the completion of his studies he removed to Paris, where he became...
ZIRNDORF, HEINRICH – German poet and rabbinical scholar; born at Fürth, Bavaria, May 7, 1829; died at Cincinnati, Ohio, Dec. 17, 1893; educated privately. His parents intended him for a commercial career, and for a short time he was employed as a...