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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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Peter Wiernik,

Journalist, New York City.

Contributions:
FLECKELES – One of the oldest Jewish families in Prague; probably "Falkeles" originally, from "Falk," a common name among Jews of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. The name occurs with various spellings (as "Felkeles" and "Falkenes")...
FRÄNK, BÄR B. GERSHON – Hungarian scholar; born in Presburg about 1777; died there on the second day of the Feast of Weeks, 1845. He was shoḥeṭ and teacher in his native city for more than forty years. He wrote ten works, of which the following, some...
FRANK, MENDEL – Polish rabbi of the first half of the sixteenth century. He was at first rabbi of Posen, and a decision rendered by him there on a question of divorce is mentioned by R. Shaknah of Lublin (see "Ḥelḳat Meḥoḳeḳ" on Eben ha-'Ezer,...
FRATERNITIES – Societies for mutual benefit. If it be true that "the origin of the friendly society is probably in all countries the burial club" ("Encyc. Brit." ix. 780), Jewish organizations of that nature may be traced back nearly two...
FREIDUS, ABRAHAM SOLOMON – Bibliographer; born in Riga, Russia, May 1, 1867. He went to Paris in 1886, and thence to the United States in the autumn of 1889. In March, 1897, he entered the service of the New York Public Library as assistant cataloguer,...
FRIEDBERG, ABRAHAM SHALOM ("HAR SHALOM") – Russian Hebraist; born at Grodno Nov. 6, 1838; died in Warsaw March 21, 1902. At the age of thirteen he was apprenticed to a watchmaker; three years later he went to Brest-Litovsk, and afterward to southern Russia, spending two...
FRIEDLAND – A family which came presumably from Friedland in the German duchy of Mecklenburg-Strelitz (or perhaps from the Bohemian town of that name), and settled in Prague. Nathan Friedland, "head of the ḳahal and of the country of...
FRISCHMAN, DAVID BEN SAUL – Russian Hebraist; born in Lodz 1863; now (1903) residing in Warsaw. Frischman began very early to write both poetry and prose in Hebrew periodicals, and his style and the originality of his views soon attracted attention. He was...
GASTFREUND, ISAAC – Galician rabbinical scholar; born about 1845; died in Vienna after 1880. He was the author of "Toledot Rabbi 'Aḳibah," a biography of the tanna Akiba b. Joseph (Lemberg, 1871; see "Ha-Shaḥar," ii. 399-400), and of the German...
GERONDI, JONAH B. ABRAHAM (HEḤASID), THE ELDER – Spanish rabbi and moralist of the thirteenth century; died in Toledo, Spain, Nov., 1263; a cousin of Naḥmanides. He came from Gerona, in Catalonia. Gerondi was the most prominent pupil of Solomon of Montpellier, the leader of...
GERSHON BEN ELIEZER HA-LEVI (YIDDELS) OF PRAGUE – Traveler of the first half of the seventeenth century. He was the author of the curious and extremely rare book "Gelilot Ereẓ Yisrael," in Judæo-German, in which he describes several routes to Jerusalem and gives an account of...
GERSONI, HENRY – American rabbi and journalist; born in Wilna, Russia, 1844; died in New York June 17, 1897. He attended the rabbinical seminary of his native city and the University of St. Petersburg, where he remained till about the middle of...
GESUNDHEIT, JACOB BEN ISAAC – Polish rabbi; born in Warsaw 1815; died there Sept. 11, 1878. He conducted a yeshibah for forty-two years, some of his many pupils becoming well-known rabbis. In 1870 he was chosen rabbi of Warsaw in succession to R. Bär ben...
GLUSKER MAGGID – The evidence that Abba Glusk Leczeka really existed and was not,as Kayserling holds ("Moses Mendelssohn," p. 431, Leipsic, 1888), "a poetical presentation of Solomon Maimon," seems to be conclusive. An anonymous writer in...
GOLDFADEN, ABRAHAM B. ḤAYYIM LIPPE – Hebrew and Yiddish poet and founder of the Yiddish drama; born at Starokonstantinov, Russia, July 12, 1840. He graduated from the rabbinical school of Jitomir in 1866. For nine years he taught in government schools, first at...
GOLDSTEIN, EDUARD – Russian musician; born at Odessa 1851; died at Leipsic Aug. 8, 1887. He was an accomplished pianist at the age of thirteen, and obtained a position in the Italian opera-house of Kishinef. In 1868 he was sent to the Leipsic...
GORDON, DAVID B. DOB BAER – Russian journalist; born in Podmerecz, near Wilna, in 1826; died in Lyck, Prussia, May 21, 1886. At the age of ten he went to Wilna, where he studied in the yeshibah. When eighteen he settled in Sergei (Serhei), government of...
GORIN, BERNARD – Yiddish journalist; born in Lida, government of Wilna, April, 1868. He is the author of two short stories in Hebrew, "Ha-Naggar ha-Na'or" and "Ha-'Agunah" (Warsaw, 1892). Gorin went to America about 1893, and has since been a...
GOTTLOBER, ABRAHAM BAER – Russian-Hebrew poet and author; born at Starokonstantinov, Volhynia,Jan. 14, 1811; died at Byelostok April 12, 1899. His father was a cantor who sympathized with the progressive movement, and young Gottlober was educated in that...
GRODNO – Russian city; capital of the government of the same name; formerly one of the chief cities of Lithuania and, later, of Poland. It had a Jewish community about the middle of the fourteenth century, for in the "Privilege" granted...
GRODNO – Russian city; capital of the government of the same name; formerly one of the chief cities of Lithuania and, later, of Poland. It had a Jewish community about the middle of the fourteenth century, for in the "Privilege" granted...
GÜNZBURG – Family which originated in the town of GÜNZBURG. It is believed that the family went thither from the city of Ulm, Württemberg, and that for this reason the best-known progenitor of the family and some of his immediate...
HA-ASIF – Hebrew year-book, edited and published by Nahum Sokolow in Warsaw. Its first volume (5645) appeared in 1884; it continued to appear regularly every year until 1889, when the fifth volume (5649) came out at the end instead of at...
HABERKASTEN, KALMAN (KALONYMUS) – Polish rabbi of the sixteenth century. He is the first known rabbi of the city of Ostrog, Volhynia, where he settled after having previously presided over a yeshibah in Lemberg. His daughter Lipka married Solomon Luria, who...
HA-KARMEL – Hebrew periodical, edited and published by Samuel Joseph Fuenn in Wilna. It was founded in 1860 as a weekly, and was continued as such (with the interruptions usual in the case of all Jewish periodical publications in Russia)...