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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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Peter Wiernik,

Journalist, New York City.

Contributions:
HA-MELIẒ – The oldest Hebrew newspaper in Russia. It was foundedby Alexander Zederbaum, in Odessa, in 1860, as a weekly, and was transferred to St. Petersburg in 1871. Its publication was several times suspended for lack of support or by...
HASKALAH – Generally, "haskalah" indicates the beginning of the movement among the Jews about the end of the eighteenth century in Eastern Europe toward abandoning their exclusiveness and acquiring the knowledge, manners, and aspirations...
ḤAYYIM B. HANANEEL HA-KOHEN – French tosafist of the second half of the twelfth century. He was a pupil of R. Jacob b. Meïr (Tam), with whom he discussed legal questions. Ḥayyim was the maternal grandfather of Moses of Coucy, author of the "Semag" ("Sefer...
ḤAYYIM BEN ISAAC OF VOLOZHIN (ḤAYYIM VOLOZHINER) – Russian rabbi and educator; born at Volozhin, government of Wilna, Jan. 21, 1749; died there June 14, 1821. Both he and his elder brother Simḥah (d. 1812) studied under R. Aryeh Löb Ginzberg, who was then rabbi of Volozhin,...
ḤAYYIM B. SOLOMON – Russo-Polish preacher; born at Wilna; died there Dec., 1804 (1794?), at an advanced age. His father, R. Solomon b. Ḥayyim, who died in 1766, was dayyan and preacher at Wilna. Ḥayyim was a friend of Elijah Gaon of Wilna and of...
ḤAYYUT, ISAAC BEN JACOB – Polish rabbi; died at Skala, near Lemberg, Sept., 1726. He was descended from an old Provençal family which first settled in Bohemia, and was the grandson of R. Menahem Manesh Ḥayyut of Wilna. He became rabbi of Skala late in...
ḤAYYUT, MENAHEM (MANESH, MANUS, MANISH, MANNUSCH) B. ISAAC – Polish rabbi; died at Wilna about May, 1636. He was the son of R. Isaac b. Abraham Ḥayyut, a descendant of a pious Provençal family; his father went to Prague in 1584 (see Gans, "Ẓemaḥ Dawid," sub anno). It seems that in his...
ḤEDER – Colloquial name for a Jewish old-fashioned elementary school. The Talmudical expression "tinnoḳot shel bet rabban" (children, or, rather, babies, of the teacher's house; school-children) may indicate that the custom of giving...
HE-ḤALUẒ – Hebrew magazine or year-book which appeared irregularly between 1852 and 1889. Its German title, "Wissenschaftliche Abhandlungen über Jüdische Geschichte, Literatur, und Alterthumskunde," indicates the nature of its contents. It...
HEILPRIN – Besides the numerous Heilbrons, Heilbronners, Heilpruns, and Heilbruns who are known to have lived between the middle of the sixteenth century and the present time, there are four distinct branches of the Heilprin family. 0The...
HEILPRIN, ELIEZER B. MORDECAI – Polish rabbi; born probably in Yaroslav, Galicia, in 1648; died at Fürth in 1700. He was rabbi successively in Gross Meseritẓ, Moravia; Tomaszow, Russian Poland; and Fürth, Bavaria. Heilprin was the author of "Siaḥ ha-Se'uddah,"...
HEILPRIN, LOUIS – American encyclopedist; son of Michael Heilprin; born in Miskolcz, Hungary, July 2, 1851. He emigrated with his parents to the United States in 1856, and was educated privately. He contributed articles to the second edition of...
HEILPRIN, MICHAEL – Association with Kossuth. Polish-American scholar, author, and philanthropist; born in Piotrkow, Russian Poland, Feb. 23, 1823; died in Summit, N. J., May 10, 1888. He was the son of Phinehas Mendel Heilprin, and was brought up...
HEILPRIN, PHINEHAS MENDEL – Polish Hebraist; born in Lublin Nov., 1801; died in Washington, D.C., Jan. 30, 1863. Trained in the study of the Talmud and its commentaries, his critical mind was attracted by the writings of Maimonides. After mastering the...
HILLEL B. ẒEBI HIRSCH MILEIKOVSKY (HILLEL SALAUTER) – Russian rabbi; born in Zareche, a suburb of Wilna, 1819; died in Mstislavl, government of Moghilef, June 1, 1899. At the age of twenty-five he became rabbi of Kreve, government of Wilna, and was afterward successively rabbi of...
HURWITZ, MOSES B. ISAAC HA-LEVI – Russian preacher; native of Krozh, government of Kovno, Russia; died in Wilna Oct. 25, 1820. He was on intimate terms with Elijah of Wilna, andwas the teacher of his sons. He became "maggid," or preacher, of Wilna, and occupied...
ISRAEL JOSHUA OF KUTNO – Russian-Polish rabbi; died at Kutno, in the government of Warsaw, July 11, 1893, at an advanced age. He studied in the yeshibah which was founded in the village of Kukhari by R. Solomon Posner about 1835. Israel Joshua and R....
ISRAEL BEN SAMUEL ASHKENAZI OF SHKLOV – Talmudic casuist; born at Shklov about 1770; died at Tiberias May 13, 1839. One of a group of Talmudical scholars of Shklov who were attracted to Wilna by Elijah Gaon (see Elijah ben Solomon) (1720-97), Ashkenazi was one of "the...
ISSACHAR BÄR B. TANḤUM – Russian rabbi; born (in Grodno ?) 1779; died at Wilna July 31, 1855. He became one of the "more ẓedeḳ" ("dayyanim") of Wilna in 1819, and held that position till his death. He made a special study of the religious usages of...
ITZIG – Wealthy German family which did much in the eighteenth century for the development of modern culture among the Jews.Babette Itzig: Born 1749; married Salomon; her daughter Leah became the wife of Abraham Mendelssohn and was the...
ITZIG – Wealthy German family which did much in the eighteenth century for the development of modern culture among the Jews.Babette Itzig: Born 1749; married Salomon; her daughter Leah became the wife of Abraham Mendelssohn and was the...
JAFFE (JOFFE) – Family of rabbis, scholars, and communal workers, with members in Germany, Austria, Russia, Great Britain, Italy, and the United States. It traces its descent from Mordecai Jaffe (1530-1612), author of the "Lebushim," and his...
JALOMSTEIN, MORDECAI B. DAVID – American journalist; born in Suwalki, Russian Poland, 1835; died in New York city Aug. 18, 1897. He was well versed in Talmudic and neo-Hebrew literature, and was a skilful linguist. He went to New York in 1871 and for several...
JEITELES (JEITTELES) – Austrian family of some importance, which can be traced back to the first half of the eighteenth century.Aaron (Andreas) Ludwig Joseph Jeitteles: Physician, poet, and writer; born at Prague Nov. 24, 1799; died at Graz June 17,...
JESCHURUN (Zeitschrift für die Wissenschaft des Judenthums) – Periodical edited and published by Joseph Isaac Kobak. Among its contributors were S. L. Rapoport, S. D. Luzzatto, A. H. Weiss, Halberstam, Dukes, Steinschneider, Reifmann, and other well-known scholars. The first two volumes...