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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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S. Janovsky,

Counselor at Law, St. Petersburg, Russia.

Contributions:
BAKHMUT – City in the government of Yekaterinoslav, Russia. It has 4,000 Jews in a population of 19,000. The district of Bakhmut, including the city, has a Jewish population of 9,469 in a total of 332,171. Until 1882, the Jews of the...
BAUSK – District town, government of Courland, Russia. According to the census of 1897 the population was 6,543, including some three thousand Jews. The principal occupations of the latter are commerce and handicrafts, Jewish artisans...
BELKOVSKY, GRÉGOIRE – Russian political economist; born at Odessa 1865. While a student he joined the Jewish nationalists of Odessa, and lectured at the Sabbath free school of Löw and Sussman. For his treatise "Zalog po Rimskomu Pravu," he was...
BENDERY – District town in the government of Bessarabia. In 1898 it had a Jewish population of 12,000 out of a total of 33,000 inhabitants. Commerce is the main occupation of the Jews there, only 1,061 of them being engaged in handicrafts...
BEREZINO – Village of Russia, in the government of Minsk, having a population (1898) of 1,900, almost exclusively Jews (1,824). About 25 per cent of them are artisans and laborers, chiefly loaders. Twenty-four Jewish families are engaged...
BESSARABIA – Government in southwest Russia; separated by the Pruth and Danube from Rumania on the west, by the Dniester from Podolia and Kherson on the north and east, and bordering on the Black Sea from the Sulina mouth of the Danube to...
BIELTZY – District town of the government of Bessarabia, Russia. At the census of 1897 the population was 18,526, including over ten thousand Jews, most of them engaged in handicrafts, but some in agriculture and commerce. There were at...
BIRZHI – District of Poniwiezh, government of Kovno. The population of 1,500 includes 600 Jews, the majority of whom are engaged in handicrafts. The traditional Jewish charity is here developed in the highest degree; the philanthropic...
BOBRUISK – City in a district of the same name, in the government of Minsk, Russia; situated on the right bank of the River Berezina. It is mentioned the first time in official documents concerning Jews, issued in 1511. The inhabitants of...
BORISPOL – A village in the district of Pereyaslav, government of Poltawa. Its population of 10,000 embraces about 1,000 Jews. Of the latter, 157 are artisans. Instruction in the Talmud Torah is imparted to 114 Jewish children, the...
BRAGIN – Village of Russia, in the government of Minsk, having a population (1898) of 4,520, including 2,248 Jews, of whom 256 were artisans and 31 laborers. The Jews maintain three charitable institutions and a Talmud Torah with 45...
BRAILOV – Town in the district of Vinitza, government of Podolia. The population at the census of 1897 was 8,972, including 3,924 Jews. Of the latter a few are engaged in agriculture, the pursuit of which was nearly closed to them by the...
BRAUDO, ALEXANDER – Russian author; born in 1864. From 1889 until 1892 he was reviewer of literature on Russian history for the "Jahresbericht der Geschichtswissenschaft" and the "Istoricheskoye Obozrenie," published by the University of St....
BRICHANY – Town in the government of Bessarabia, Russia, with (in 1898) 7,303 Jewish inhabitants in a total population of 8,094. The Jewish artisans number 972, most of whom are furriers who export fur overcoats and caps to the extent of...
BROVARY – Small town in the government of Chernigov, Russia. In 1898 it had 1,344 Jewish inhabitants in a population of 5,166. Most of them were engaged in mercantile pursuits; while 258 followed various handicrafts. The prevailing trade...
BRUSILOV – Town in the government of Kiev, Russia, with a Jewish population (1898) of 2,800, in a total of 6,500. Of the 541 Jewish artisans, 112 are tailors and 206 tanners. About eighty families receive alms at Passover. There is a...
BRYANSK – Town in the government of Grodno, Russia, with a Jewish population (1898) of 2,365, in a total population of 6,342. Of the Jews 525 are artisans and 85 gardeners and farmers.H. R. S. J.
BYELSK – Town in the government of Grodno, Russia. It is impossible to name the exact date when Jews first settled here. In the sixteenth century, during the reign of Sigismund Augustus, the Byelsk Jews were accused of ritual murder, but...
BYESHENKOVICHI – Town in the district of Lepelsk, government of Vitebsk, Russia. In 1898, in a total population of 5,000, about 4,000 were Jews, of whom 576 were artisans. They had a synagogue, many houses of prayer, three benevolent societies,...
BYKHOV – District town in the government of Mohilev, Russia. At the census of 1898 the total population was 6,536, including 3,172 Jews, of whom 587 were artisans. Most of the Jews are extremely poor, and at times they lack the simple...
CHASHNIKI – Town in the government of Vitebsk, Russia, having (in 1897) a population of 4,590, of whom about 4,000 are Jews. Besides those engaged in dairying, which is entirely in the hands of the Jewish population, there are 310 Jewish...
CHECHELNIK – Town in the government of Podolia, Russia, having (1898) a population of about 7,000, including 1,967 Jews. Their principal occupation is commerce; but 352 are engaged in various handicrafts, and 96 are journeymen. About 200...
CHECHERSK – Town in the government of Mohilev, Russia, with a population (in 1898) of 2,819, including 1,692 Jews. The latter are principally engaged in commerce, but 323 follow various handicrafts. Of these 158 own shops, 60 are...
CHELM – Town in the government of Kovno, Russia. It has a population of about 4,200, all of whom, with the exception of about 300, are Jews. Most of them are engaged in mercantile pursuits, only 549 being artisans. The town has a...
CHEMEROVTZY – Small town in the government of Podolia, Russia, with (in 1898) an almost exclusively Jewish population of 1,282. About 160 Jews follow various trades, but the bulk of the population is engaged in mercantile pursuits. Hair sacks...