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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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S. Janovsky,

Counselor at Law, St. Petersburg, Russia.

Contributions:
LIBAU – Russian city in the government of Courland. It has a population (1897) of 64,505, including 9,700 Jews. Among the latter are 3,225 artisans (1,309 being masters) and 117 day-laborers. Among its educational institutions are a...
LIPOVETZ – Town in the government of Kiev, Russia. In 1897 it had a total population of 6,068, of which 4,500 were Jews. There were 670 Jewish artisans and 71 Jewish day-laborers; of the latter 25 engaged in field-work during the harvest...
LOMZA (LOMZHA) – Capital of the government of Lomza, Russian Poland; situated on the left bank of the River Narev. In 1897 it had a total population of 26,075, including 9,822 Jews. The earliest known references to an organized Jewish community...
LUBOML – Town in the government of Volhynia, Russia. Jews lived there as early as the sixteenth century, though the attitude of the Christian inhabitants toward them was distinctly hostile. In 1557 the Jewish community resolved that none...
MALCHA – Russian town, in the government of Grodno. A Jewish community existed in Malcha in 1583, when, in consequence of rumors current as to the killing of a Christian laborer by the Jews, the ḳahal of Malcha invited the constable of...
MIEDZYBOZ (MEDZHIBOZH) – Russian town in the government of Podolia; it has a total population of 5,100, including 3,400 Jews. Among the latter there are 1,009 artisans and 57 day-laborers. There are the usual charitable organizations. About 300 families...
MOGHILEF (MOHILEV) – Community in 1621. 1. Capital of the government of the same name in White Russia; situated on the Dnieper. Though the city was well known as an important trading center as early as the fourteenth century, the first mention of...
MSTISLAVL – District town in the government of Moghilef, Russia. A Jewish community existed here in the sixteenth century. There is reason to believe that the community was poor; for the synagogal decorations, consisting of a silver crown...
NESVIZH – Small town in the government of Minsk, Russia; it was in existence in the thirteenth century. The census of 1897 gives it a population of 8,446, including 4,764 Jews. Market-gardening is a common occupation among the latter....
NEZHIN (NYEZHIN) – Russian town, in the government of Chernigov; one of the centers of the tobacco-trade. In 1648 Nezhin was taken by the Cossacks, and its Polish and Jewish inhabitants were put to the sword. On July 20, 1881, an anti-Jewish riot...
NIJNI-NOVGOROD (NIZHNI-NOVGOROD) – Russian city; capital of the government of the same name; famed for its fairs, which are held annually. It is without the Pale of Settlement. The regulations of 1835 permitted, for the first time, the temporary residence in...
NIKOLAIEF (NIKOLAYEV) – Russian Black Sea port and naval station, in the government of Kherson; founded in 1784; now an important commercial center. Jews began to settle in Nikolaief soon after the partition of Poland, but in 1829 their residence there...
NOVGOROD – One of the oldest of Russian cities, on the River Volkhoff; it has been in existence since the ninth century. In the first half of the eleventh century the Bishop of Novgorod was Luka Zhidyata (= "the Jew"), whose name is...
NOVGOROD-SYEVERSK – Russian town in the government of Chernigov. The town dates its origin as far back as the eleventh century. Jews lived there in the sixteenth century, contributed toward the repairs of the streets, and paid taxes on an equal...
NOVGOROD-VOLHYNSK – Russian town in the government of Volhynia. It has a total population of 16,873, of whom about 9,000 are Jews (1897). The latter are prominent in the commercial affairs of the town, being largely engaged in the export trade. The...
NOVOALEKSANDROVSK – Russian city in the government of Kovno. It has (1897) a total population of 6,370, of whom 4,277 are Jews. Among the latter are 445 artisans and 48 day-laborers; 60 pupils receive instruction in the Talmud Torah, 240 in the...
NOVOKONSTANTINOV – Russian town in the government of Podolia; it has a population of2,855, including 1,825 Jews. There are 245 Jewish artisans and 22 Jewish day-laborers. The nineteen ḥadarim give instruction to 310 pupils. There are three houses...
NOVOMOSKOVSK – Russian city in the government of Yekaterinoslav; it has a total population of 12,862, including 1,147 Jews. Among the latter are more than 900 Jewish artisans and day-laborers, but Jews form a very slight proportion of the...
ORSHA – Town in the government of Moghilef. Orsha is mentioned in the Russian chronicles of the eleventh century. In 1579 Isaac Yakubovich, a Jew of Brest, farmed the customs duties of Orsha, Moghilef, and other places. In 1643 Nikolai...
YEKATERINOSLAF (YEKATERINOSLAV) – Russian city founded in 1787 during the reign of Catherine II.; capital of the government of the same name. It is one of the most important commercial and industrial centers of southern Russia, the census of 1897 crediting it...
YELISAVETGRAD (ELIZABETHGRAD) – Town in the government of Kherson, Russia. It was founded in 1754, and soon became one of the most important cities of southern Russia. The name of Yelisavetgrad recalls sad memories to the Russian Jews; for from that town...