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S. Kahn,

Rabbi, Nîmes, France.

Contributions:
ABIGDOR, ABRAHAM – A physician, philosopher, and translator; born in Provence, probably at Arles, in 1350. He should not be confounded with Maestro Abraham Abigdor, who in 1386 was the proprietor of a house at Arles ("Monatsschrift," 1880, pp....
ABRAHAM BEN ḤAYYIM – Rabbi of Narbonne, where he lived in the first half of the thirteenth century. He was a brother of Reuben ben Ḥayyim, the pupil of Isaac ha-Kohen of Narbonne, and the teacher of Menahem Meïri. Abraham left his native place about...
ABRAHAM MALAKI – A poet who flourished at Carpentras, near Avignon, about the end of thethirteenth century. In his poem, "The Flaming Sword," Abraham Bedersi recognizes his poetic talent. Zunz ("Literaturgesch." p. 500) mentions a liturgical...
ABRAHAM OF TROYES – Head of the community of Troyes, France; lived about the middle of the twelfth century. He was a contemporary of Rabbenu Tam. The influence that he exercised at Troyes gave rise to a somewhat curious legal incident. Eleazar...
AQUIN, LOUIS-HENRI D' – Writer and translator of the seventeenth century; son of Philippe D'Aquin. He was converted to Christianity at Aquino in the kingdom of Naples. He left many works relating to the Hebrew language and literature, among which were...
AQUIN, PHILIPPE D' – Hebraist; born at Carpentras about 1578; died at Paris in 1650. Early in life he left his native town and went to Aquino, where he became converted to Christianity and changed his name Mordecai or Mardochée to Philippe d'Aquin....
ARLES – City of France, in the department of Bouches du Rhône; ancient capital of Provence. The date of the settlement of the Jews in Arles is lost in antiquity. According to a legend, the emperor Vespasian placed Jews on three vessels,...
AUBRIOT, HUGUES – A provost of Paris, France; born at Dijon; died in Burgundy in 1382. He was in office at the accession of Charles VI. (1380), when the populace, irritated beyond endurance by the taxes levied upon them, demanded of the king that...
AUXERRE – Chief city of the department of Yonne, France. Since the eleventh century an important community of Jews existed here and was presided over by eminent rabbis. These rabbis, knownas "the sages of Auxerre," were in correspondence...
AZARIA BEN JOSEPH IBN ABBA MARI – One of the last Jewish writers coming from Perpignan, France. He flourished in the first half of the fifteenth century. A rising against the Jews was the cause of his leaving his native city. Neubauer ("Ecrivains Juifs," p. 759;...
BEAUCAIRE – City in the department of Gard, France. A somewhat important Jewish community was founded here as early as the beginning of the twelfth century, whose members lived among the Christians and enjoyed the same rights and privileges...
CADENET – Small village in the department of Vaucluse, France. Like all places situated along the river Durance, Cadenet had a Jewish community in the Middle Ages. A document of the year 1283 states that this community, together with...
CARCASSONNE, DAVID – French physician; born Dec. 20, 1789, at Remoulins, a small town in the Gard department, France; died Nov. 15, 1861, at Nîmes. He was the son of a purveyor to the army of Napoleon I., and having joined the Grande Armée as...
CARCASSONNE, LÉON – French physician, municipal councilor, and member of the Academy of Nîmes. Son of David Carcassonne; died at Marseilles May 7, 1894. He was the author of the following works: (1) "Questions sur Diverses Branches des Sciences...
CARPENTRAS – Thirteenth Century. Chief town of the arrondissement of that name in the department of Vaucluse, France. Jews settled at Carpentras at a very early period. The collection of rabbinical decisions called "Ḳol Bo" quotes a document...
CASLARI – Name of a family originally from Caylar (Latin, "Castalarium"), a village in the department of Hérault, France. A rather important Jewish community existed at Caylar in the Middle Ages. After the royal edict of Sept. 17, 1394,...
CASLARI, ABRAHAM BEN DAVID – Physician; lived at Besalu, Catalonia, in the first half of the fourteenth century. Caslari was considered one of the most skilful physicians of his time. He was the teacher of Moses Narboni of Perpignan, and one of the ten...
CASLARI, ISRAEL BEN JOSEPH HALEVI – Physician and poet, lived at Avignon in 1327. He was the author of a liturgic poem for Purim, beginning with the words . In a manuscript of this poem ("Rev. Et. Juives," ix. 116) the signature contains the words , from which...
CASLARI, JOSHUA – Liturgical poet; lived at Avignon about 1540. He wrote four elegies which are inserted in the manuscript Maḥzor of Avignon; his signature is found at the end of the last. Joshua Caslari is in all probability identical with the...
CASTEL-SARASSIN – Chief town of the department of Tarn-et-Garonne, France. A somewhat important Jewish community existed here in the Middle Ages. When attacked by the Pastoureaux in 1320, all the Jews except two killed one another, in order not...
CAVAILLON – Small town in the department of Vaucluse, France. In his book, "Réponses de Rabbins Français et Lorrains" (Vienna, 1881), Joël Müller mentions (No. 17) a rabbi of Cavaillon, Eliezer ben Judah, pupil of Isaac ben Menahem, who...
CHÂLONS-SUR-MARNE – Capital of the department of Marne, France. Little is known of the Jews of this city. In 1292 Davy and his son Salemon, Jews of Chaalons, were living at Paris. The "Document sur les Juifs du Barrois" (1321-23) mentions for...
CHÂLONS-SUR-SAÔNE – Capital of the department of Saône-et-Loire, France. Jews were established in the city at an early period; the council that convened there in 630 forbade them to sell slaves abroad. A mint-master named Priscus, who held office...
CHAMBÉRY – Capital of the department of Savoy, France. When the Jews were driven from France by Philippe Auguste in 1182, many of them sought refuge in Chambéry and the surrounding country, especially at Yenne, Seissel, Aiguebelle, and...
CHARTRES – Chief town of the department of Eure-et-Loire, France. From time immemorial Jews were established at Chartres, occupying a special quarter called "Rue aux Juifs." In 1394 their synagogue, which was in the Rue Saint-Père, was...