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Samuel Krauss, Ph.D.

Professor, Normal College, Budapest, Hungary.

Contributions:
CIRCUS – In antiquity a large enclosure used for horse-and chariot-races, and sometimes for gladiatorial combats, etc. Public games and theatrical representations being such important factors in the life of the Greeks and Romans, the...
CLEOPATRA – Queen of Egypt 52-30 B.C.; daughter of Ptolemy Auletes. Through her association with the rulers of Rome, Cleopatra was of importance not so much to the Jews of her own country as to those of Judea. When Herod fled in great...
CLEOPATRA OF JERUSALEM – One of the nine wives of Herod I., whom he married late in life. She bore to him Herod and Philippus (Josephus, "Ant." xvii. 1, § 3; "B. J." i. 28, § 4).G.S. Kr.
COPONIUS – First procurator of Judea, about 6 C.E. He was, like the procurators that succeeded him, of knightly rank, and "had the power of life and death" (Josephus, "B. J." ii. 8, § 1; "Ant." xviii. 1, § 1). During his administration...
CORINTH – A city in ancient Argos, Greece, and the center of the cult of Aphrodite. Jews lived here, as in the other cities of Greece (Philo, "Legatioad Caium," § 36), although little is known of their history. The apostle Paul preached...
CORPSE – Need of Burial. A body of a dead human being polluted not only those that touched it, but also the dwelling, its inmates, and all uncovered utensils (Num. xix. 14 et seq.). A person made unclean by a corpse was required to be...
CYPROS – Wife of King Agrippa I., daughter of Phasaelus and Salampsio, and granddaughter of Herod I. She had three daughters, Berenice, Mariamne, and Drusilla; and two sons, Agrippa and Drusus, the latter dying in childhood (Josephus,...
CYPROS – A woman of noble Arabian family; married about 75 B.C. the Jewish governor Antipater, to whom she bore five children, Phasaelus, Herod (afterward king), Josephus, Pheroras, and Salome (Josephus, "Ant." xiv. 7, § 3; idem, "B. J."...
CYPRUS – In Hasmonean Times. The large island in the easternmost basin of the Mediterranean, probably deriving its name from the Cyprus flower (Κύπρος), the Hebrew appellation of which is . Josephus states ("Ant." i. 6, § 1) that the...
CYRENE – A large and important city in Cyrenaica, the district of Upper Libya on the north coast of Africa, west of Egypt. Cyrene was one of the five large cities that gave to this region the name of "Pentapolis" (compare Josephus, "B....
DECAPOLIS, THE – Name of a district of Palestine that included a number of autonomous cities. According to Pliny ("Historia Naturalis," v. 18, 74) these ten cities were Damascus, Philadelphia, Raphana, Scythopolis, Gadara, Hippos, Dion, Pella,...
DEMOPHON – Apparently an officer under Lysias' command; he was Syrian general in Palestine about 164 B.C., and as such harried the Jewish population, who were already worn out because of their many wars, and were then engaged in...
DIOCLETIAN – Roman emperor (285-305). Although he was the son of Dalmatian slaves (Eutropius, ix. 19), he rose to the highest honors by virtue of his personal qualities. The rabbinical sources have amplified the account of his lowly origin...
DION CASSIUS – Historian; born about 155 at Nicæa in Bithynia; held the highest offices of state in the Roman empire; became consul in 221; died about 240. He wrote an extended work in Greek which dealt with the entire history of Rome, and...
DIONYSUS, FESTIVAL OF – II Maccabees. Historic notices regarding a supposed festival of Dionysus in Judea do not antedate the time of the Maccabees. The general statement in I Maccabees (i. 51, 54, 55) that Antiochus Epiphanes forced the Jews to...
DOMNINUS – Jewish philosopher; lived between 400 and 480. He was a native of Laodicea, or Larissa, in Syria; the pupil of Syrian, whom he perhaps succeeded as teacher of the Neoplatonic school at Athens. He was a contemporary of the...
DORIS – First wife of Herod, whom he married about 45 B.C. The names of her parents are not mentioned, probably because they belonged to the masses, for Josephus says expressly ("Ant." xiv. 12, § 1) that Doris came from the people...
DOROTHEUS – Son of Nathanael; one of the embassy sent by the Jews to Rome in 45 C.E., and which induced the emperor Claudius to consent that the garment of the high priest should remain in the hands of the Jews (Josephus, "Ant." xx. 1, §§...
DOSITHEUS – Founder of the Dositheans. Founder of a Samaritan sect; lived probably in the first century of the common era. According to Pseudo-Tertullian ("Adversus Omnes Hæreses," i.), he was the first to deny the Prophets—a heresy that...
DRUSILLA – Daughter of Agrippa I. and Cypros (Josephus, "Ant." xviii. 5, § 4; idem, "B. J." ii. 11, § 6); born in 38. She was only six years old at her father's death (44), and was subjected to the insult of having the portraits of herself...
EARTH – The Hebrew expression for "earth" means primarily earth or soil as an element, and also the surface of the earth and plowed land, the latter being probably of the red color characteristic of Palestinian soil (compare Abu...
EARTHQUAKE – The Hebrew word "ra'ash," as well as its Assyrian and Arabic equivalents designating an earthquake, is indicative of a great noise or tremendous roaring. In Ps. lxxii. 16 the same word is used to describe the gentle rustling of...
ELEAZAR – 1. High priest; third son of Aaron. After his two elder brothers, Nadab and Abihu, had suffered death for offering strange fire before the Lord, Eleazar became his father's chief assistant, with the title "prince of the princes...
ELEAZAR – 1. High priest; third son of Aaron. After his two elder brothers, Nadab and Abihu, had suffered death for offering strange fire before the Lord, Eleazar became his father's chief assistant, with the title "prince of the princes...
ELEAZAR B. DINAI – Leader of the Zealots (35-60, C.E.). When the Jews of Peræea had boundary disputes with the pagan population of Philadelphia, the procurator Fadus killed Annibas, one of the three leaders, and banished the other two, Amram and...