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Samuel Krauss, Ph.D.

Professor, Normal College, Budapest, Hungary.

Contributions:
ELEAZAR B. JAIR – Leader of the Sicarii, the remnant of whom, driven from Jerusalem about 70 by Eleazar b. Ananias, retired to Masada. Eleazar was a descendant of Judah, the founder of the party of Zealots. Besieged by the Romans, Eleazar...
EPHESUS – Capital of Ionia, Asia Minor, and later, under the Romans, capital of Asia Proconsularis. Many Jews lived in this large Greek city during the whole of the Hellenistic period. Josephus ("Contra Ap." ii. 4) traces the granting of...
EPHOR – An official in Sparta and in other parts of Greece. Officials called "ephori" were employed among the Jews: (1) in the service of the Temple at Jerusalem (Yoma 9a); (2) at Babylon (Yeb. 45b); (3) in the Byzantine empire, where...
ETHNARCH – In the Greco-Roman world, one that stood at the head of any community, though not an independent ruler. The Hebrew word "rosh" ( ), especially in the Biblical works of the post-exilic time, had perhaps a meaning related to...
EUPOLEMUS – Son of John, son of Accos; envoy of Judas Maccabeus to the Romans. To secure himself against the Syrians Judas sent Eupolemus with Jason, son of Eleazar, to win the Romans as friends and allies. The Romans granted his request,...
EZEKIAS – High priest mentioned by Josephus, who relates that among those who accompanied Ptolemy to Egypt after the battle of Gaza (320 B.C.) was Ezekias, then sixty-six years of age, a man skilled in oratory and in affairs of...
FELIX (ANTONIUS FELIX) – Procurator of Judea. Felix, who was a freedman of the empress Antonia, was administrator of Samaria, and probably of Judea proper also, as early as the time of the procurator Cumanus (Tacitus, "Annales," xii. 54; Josephus,...
FESTUS, PORCIUS – Procurator of Judea about 60-62 C.E., after Felix (Josephus, "Ant." xx. 8, § 9; "B. J." ii. 14, § 1). Although he was more just than his predecessor, he could not allay the intense bitterness of feeling among the Jews, caused...
FISCUS JUDAICUS – The yearly Temple tax of half a shekel prescribed by the Law (Ex. xxx. 13; compare Sheḳ. i. 1), and which the Jews of the Diaspora contributed during the time of the Second Temple. It was diverted by Vespasian, after the...
FLACCUS – Governor of Egypt; enemy and persecutor of the Jews of Alexandria, for which reason Philo, in 42 C. E., directed a special work ("In Flaccum") against him. Philo only once (§ 1) gives the full name, φλάκκος 'A ουιλλιος. This is...
FLACCUS, L. POMPONIUS – Roman governor of Syria (32-35?); no particulars concerning his life are known. When Agrippa (afterward King Agrippa I.), while poor and suffering, was insulted by his brother-in-law Herod Antipas, he applied to Flaccus, with...
FLACCUS, L. VALERIUS – Proconsul of Asia Minor in 62-61 B.C. He is notorious in the history of the Jews for having seized for the public treasury the Temple money intended for Jerusalem; thus, at Apamea, nearly 100 pounds of gold through the Roman...
FLAVIA DOMITILLA – Convert to Judaism and martyr at Rome. An early branch of the imperial Flavian house was at one time inclined toward Judaism and Christianity. Even Titus Flavius Sabinus, Vespasian's elder brother, led during his last years a...
FLY – A two-winged insect, especially the common house-fly (Musca domestica). It is referred to in Eccl. x. 1: "Dead flies cause the ointment of the apothecary to send forth a stinking savor." Since a fly in food is offensive, its...
FOOD – Biblical Data: There are two main divisions of food, vegetable and animal.I. Vegetable Food: As among all the Oriental peoples, and as is the case even to-day among the fellaheen of Syria, vegetable food, and chiefly grain...
FULVIA – A Roman lady of high station, converted to Judaism through the teachings of a Jew who had sought refuge in Rome to escape punishment. This impostor, together with three others, persuaded her to contribute purple and gold for the...
GALLUS, CAIUS CESTIUS – Consul "suffectus" in 42 C.E. Pliny ("Historia Naturalis," xxxiv. 48) calls him "consularis," i.e.," retired consul." According to a dubious passage in Tacitus ("Annales," xv. 25), he was appointed successor to Corbulo as legate...
GAMALA – City in Palestine, opposite Taricheæ, beyond Lake Tiberias. It had an unusually strong position on the side of a mountain with a protruding spur, which gave it its name ( = "camel"). It was accessible only from the south, on...
GERUSIA – In Jerusalem. A council of elders. Moses was assisted by a council of seventy elders (Num. xi. 16), and the elders as representatives of the people of Israel are often referred to (I Kings viii. 1, xx. 7; II Kings x. 1; Ezek....
GISCALA – City of Galilee, not far from Tyre; known as the native city of the patriot John of Giscala. John tried to keep his fellow citizens from engaging in battle with the Romans, but when Giscala was captured and burned by the...
GLADIATOR – A fighter in the gymnasium or arena. Gladiatorial contests were an aspect of Roman life which was intensely hated by the Jews. In Greek a gladiator is called ἀϑλητής or μονομάχος, meaning a single fighter, and he is also so...
GORGIAS – Syrian general of the second century B.C. After Judas Maccabeus had defeated the Syrians, they determined to send a stronger force against him. According to I Macc. iii. 38, which Josephus follows ("Ant." xii. 7, § 3), it was...
GREEK LANGUAGE AND THE JEWS – This article will be confined to the Greek material found in rabbinical works, since the language of the Septuagint and the New Testament requires separate discussion, and does not belong here. Latin was made accessible to the...
HADRIAN – Roman emperor (117-138). At the very beginning of his reign he was called upon to suppress the final outbreaks of Jewish rebellion at Cyrene and Alexandria. According to a late but trustworthy source, he is said to have enticed...
HONORIUS – Emperor of the Western Roman Empire (395-423). The laws of Arcadius, the Eastern emperor, regarding the Jews were signed also by Honorius, and applied at first equally to the Western Empire. But Honorius later promulgated...