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Samuel Krauss, Ph.D.

Professor, Normal College, Budapest, Hungary.

Contributions:
ISIS – Egyptian deity, at whose instigation, it was alleged, the Jews were forced to leave Egypt. Cheremon, the enemy of the Jews, asserted that the goddess Isis had appeared to the Egyptian king Amenophis, and had censured him because...
JACOB THE GALILEAN – Son of the Judah who caused an uprising against the Romans at the time of the taxation under Quirinius. Jacob followed his father's example, and together with his brother Simeon also rebelled against the Romans. The procurator...
JACOB BEN SOSA – Idumean leader. In the great war against Rome, 67-70, when Simon bar Giora went on a raid through Idumæa to take provisions, the Idumeans gathered together to defend their country, and then 20,000 of them went to Jerusalem. One...
JADDUA – High priest at the time of the Second Temple. According to Neh. xii. 11, his father's name was Jonathan, but according to verse 22 of the same chapter, it was Johanan. If both of these names are correct, and if Johanan was the...
JASON – 1. High priest from 174 to 171 B.C.; brother of the high priest Onias III. During the absence of Onias, who had been summoned to Antioch to meet charges brought against him by the Hellenists, Jason joined hands with his...
JASON OF CYRENE – Judæo-Hellenistic historian. He wrote a history of the Maccabean revolt in five books, from which the author of II Maccabees took his data (II Macc. ii. 23), this book being practically an abstract (ἐπιτομὴ; ib. ii. 26, 28) of...
JEROME (EUSEBIUS HIERONYMUS SOPHRONIUS) – Church father; next to Origen, who wrote in Greek, the most learned student of the Bible among the Latin ecclesiastical writers, and, previous to modern times, the only Christian scholar able to study the Hebrew Bible in the...
JESUS OF NAZARETH – In History: Founder of Christianity; born at Nazareth about 2 B.C. (according to Luke iii. 23); executed at Jerusalem 14th of Nisan, 3789 (March or April, 29 C.E.). His life, though indirectly of so critical a character, had...
JESUS B. PHABI – High priest (c. 30 B.C.). He was deposed by Herod the Great, his office being given to Simon, the son of Boethus, the king's father-in-law (Josephus, "Ant." xv. 9, § 3). Jesus'father's name in this passage of Josephus (ed....
JESUS BEN ZAPPHA – General (στρατηγός) of Idumæa in the first century, appointed by the revolutionary government of Jerusalem after Cestius Gallus had been driven away. Jesus' companion was Eleazar b. Neos; and both belonged to high-priestly...
JOHANAN GADI – Eldest of the five sons of Mattathias the Maccabee (I Macc. ii. 2; Josephus, "Ant." xii. 6, § 1), though the least important. When Jonathan took the leadership and was being hard pressed in the country east of the Jordan, he...
JOHANAN BEN JEHOIADA – High priest under Artaxerxes Ochus (359-338 B.C.); perhaps identical with the one mentioned in Neh. xii. 11 ("Johanan" being read instead of "Jonathan") and 22. He murdered his younger brother Jesus in the Temple, probably...
JOHANAN BEN KAREAH – General of the Israelites at the time of Nebuchadnezzar (c. 586 B.C.). After the kingdom of Judea had been destroyed by the Chaldeans, the Babylonian king appointed Gedaliah b. Ahikam governor, with residence at Mizpah, over the...
JOHN OF GISCALA (Johanan ben Levi) – Native of the small Galilean city of Giscala ( ), who took an important part in the great war against Rome (66-70). He was originally poor, weak in body, and not at all eager for battle; but the vices that Josephus ascribes to...
JOIADA – Son of Eliashib, high priest about 450 B.C. (Neh. xii. 10-11, 22). One of his children became a son-in-law of Sanballat the Horonite, and was removed from the Temple by Nehemiah (Neh. xiii. 28).G. S. Kr.
JONATHAN BEN ABSALOM – General of Simon Maccabeus. At the command of the latter he took possession of Joppa, and drove out the inhabitants in order that they might not be able to surrender the city to Ṭarfon (I Macc. xiii. 11; Josephus, "Ant." xiii....
JONATHAN B. ANAN – Son of the high priest Anan; was appointed by Vitellius high priest in the place of Joseph Caiaphas, at the time of the Passover in the year 36 (Josephus, "Ant." xviii. 4, § 3). For reasons unknown he was deposed by Vitellius...
JONATHAN MACCABEUS – Leader of the Jews. Son of Mattathias; leader of the Jews in the Maccabean wars from 161 to 143 B.C. He is called also Apphus (Ἀπφοῦς [Syriac, ] = "the dissembler," "the diplomat," in allusion to a trait prominent in him; I...
JONATHAN THE SADDUCEE – Friend of the Hasmonean prince John Hyrcanus (135-104 B.C.). As the Pharisees belittled the prince's fitness for the office of high priest, Jonathan incited the prince against them, with the intention of driving them out of...
JOSEPH OF GAMALA – Son of a midwife (Josephus, "Vita," § 37). With Chares he incited the inhabitants of Gamala to revolt against Agrippa, and hence also against the Romans, in 66 C.E. (Josephus, "B. J." iv. 1, § 4). When the Romans took the city,...
JOSEPH B. ZACHARIAH – Jewish general of the Maccabean period. He, together with Azariah, was left in charge of the forces when the Maccabean brothers Judah, Jonathan, and Simon were obliged to go to Gilead and Galilee for the protection of the Jews...
JOSEPHUS, FLAVIUS – General and historian; born in 37 or 38; died after 100. He boasts of belonging to the Hasmonean race on his mother's side ("Vita," § 1). His great-grandfather was Simon "the Stammerer." As a boy Josephus was distinguished for...
JOSHUA (Jesus) BEN DAMNAI – High priest about 62-63 C.E. He was appointed by King Agrippa II., after Anan, son of Anan, had been deposed (Josephus, "Ant." xx. 9, § 1). Joshua also was soon deposed by the king, and in his place Jesus (Joshua) b. Gamaliel...
JOSHUA (Jesus) BEN GAMLA – A high priest who officiated about 64 C.E. He married therich widow Martha of the high-priestly family Boethos (Yeb. vi. 4), and she by bribing Agrippa II. (not Jannai, as Talmudic sources say) secured for him the office of high...
JOSHUA OF SHIKNIN – Amora of the third century; known especially as a transmitter of Levi's Haggadah. He also quotes a haggadic sentence by Aḥa (Lev. R. xxxi. 5). Of his own work only a haggadic sentence, quoted by Yusta b. Shunam, is known: "The...