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Samuel Krauss, Ph.D.

Professor, Normal College, Budapest, Hungary.

Contributions:
NAZARENES – Sect of primitive Christianity; it appears to have embraced all those Christians who had been born Jews and who neither would nor could give up their Jewish mode of life. They were probably the descendants of the...
NICANOR – Son of Patroclus, and general and friend of Antiochus Epiphanes, who in 165 B.C. sent him and Gorgias with an army against the Jews (I Macc. iii. 38; II Macc. viii. 9). In anticipation of an easy victory, he had brought 1,000...
NICHOLAS OF DAMASCUS (NICOLAUS DAMASCENUS) – Greek historian and philosopher; friend of King Herod the Great; born at Damascus, where his father, Antipater, filled high offices and was greatly respected (Suidas, s.v. Ἄντίπατρος); died at Rome. Being the heir to his...
NUMENIUS – Son of Antiochus. Together with Antipater, son of Jason, he was sent to Sparta and Rome, first by Jonathan Maccabeus (I Macc. xii. 16; Josephus, "Ant." xiii. 5, § 8), and then by Simon (I Macc. xv. 15-24), returning with decrees...
ONIAS – Name of several high priests at the time of the Second Temple. The sequence given them below is based on the statements of Josephus, which are unreliable, since Josephus did not have access to trustworthy sources.Onias I.: Son...
OPHITES – Collective name for several Gnostic sects which regarded the serpent (Greek, ὄφις; Hebrew, "naḥash"; hence called also Naasseni) as the image of creative wisdom. Such sects existed within Judaism probably even before the rise of...
PAPPUS – Leader of a rebellion under Emperor Hadrian (117-138). He is always mentioned together with Luliani, who was probably his brother ("'Aruk," s.v. ). They came originally from Alexandria (hence their Greek names); but they lived...
PATRICIUS – 1. Leader of the Jews against the Romans in the fourth century. When the Jews in Palestine were severely oppressed by the Roman general Ursicinus (351) they made a desperate attempt at revolt, which soon ended in their...
PENTAPOLIS – 1. The five Sodomite cities Adamah, Gomorrah, Sodom, Zeboim, and Zoar, expressly called "Pentapolis" in Wisdom x. 6.2. The five Philistine cities Askelon, Azotus, Ekron, Gath, and Gaza (comp. I Sam. vi. 17, 18) in connection...
PETRONIUS, ARBITER – Latin satirist; generally assumed to be a contemporary of Nero. In a fragment he ridicules the Jews, declaring that, even though they worship the pig and revere heaven, this is of no significance unless they are circumcised, for...
PETRONIUS, PUBLIUS – Governor of Syria (39-42); died probably in the reign of Claudius. During his term of office Petronius had frequent opportunities to come in contact with the Jews of Judea and to confer benefits upon them. This was especially...
PHABI – High-priestly family which flourished about the period of the fall of the Second Temple.The name, with which may be compared Φαβέας (variant, Φαμέας), that of a Carthaginian general (Suidas, s.v. 'Αμίλκας), was borne by the high...
PHASAEL – Elder brother of Herod the Great. Both Phasael and Herod began their careers under their father, Antipater, who appointed the former to be governor of Jerusalem, and Herod governor of Galilee (Josephus, "Ant." xiv. 9, § 2; "B....
PHASAELIS, PHASAELUS – City in Palestine founded by Herod the Great in honor of his brother Phasael (Phasaelus). It was situated in the Jordan valley north of Jericho, in a barren region, which was, however, made fit for cultivation (Josephus, "Ant."...
PHERORAS – Son of Antipater and his wife Cypros; died in 5 B.C. (Josephus, "Ant." xvii. 3, § 3; "B. J." i. 29, § 4). He was the youngest brother of Herod, who entrusted to him the petty warfare with the partizans of Antigonus, and at whose...
PHILIP OF BATHYRA – Son of Jacimus and grandson of Zamaris, both of whom governed the city of Bathyra in Trachonitis. Agrippa II. honored Philip with his friendship and made him leader of his troops (Josephus, "Ant." xvii. 2, § 3), so that when...
PHINEHAS – Guardian of the treasury at Jerusalem. In the last days of Jerusalem, in the year 70 C.E., he followed the example of his priestly colleague Jesus b. Thebouthi, and betrayed his trust; collecting many of the linen coats of the...
PHINEHAS BEN CLUSOTH – Leader of the Idumcans. Simon b. Giora undertook several expeditions into the territory of the Idumeans to requisition provisions for his people. The ldumeans, after their complaints in Jerusalem had not brought assistance,...
PHINEHAS B. SAMUEL – The last high priest; according to the reckoning of Josephus, the eighty-third since Aaron. He was a wholly unworthy person who was not of high-priestly lineage and who did not even know what the high priest's office was, but...
PHRYGIA – Province in Asia Minor. Antiochus the Great transferred 2,000 Jewish families from Mesopotamia and Babylonia to Phrygia and Lydia (Josephus, "Ant." xii. 3, § 4). They settled principally in Laodicea and Apamea. The Christian...
POLEMON II. – King, first of the Pontus and the Bosporus, then of the Pontus and Cilicia, and lastly of Cilicia alone; died in 74 C.E. Together with other neighboring kings and princes, Polemon once visited King Agrippa I. in Tiberias...
POMPEY THE GREAT – Roman general who subjected Judea to Rome. In the year 65 B.C., during his victorious campaign through Asia Minor, he sent to Syria his legate Scaurus, who was soon obliged to interfere in the quarrels of the two brothers...
PRESBYTER – From the time of Moses down to the Talmudic period the "zeḳenim" (elders) are mentioned as constituting a regular communal organization, occasionally under the Greek name Gerusia. But the term "presbyter" (πρεσβύτερος) is found...
PROCURATORS – Title of the governors who were appointed by Rome over Judea after the banishment of Archelaus in the year 6 C.E., and over the whole of Palestine after the defeat of Agrippa in the year 44. Though joined politically to Syria,...
PSEUDO-PHOCYLIDES – A Judæo-Hellenistic poet and the author of a didactic poem in epic style of 250 verses. He assumed the name of the ancient gnomic bard Phocylides of Miletus; and medieval scholars, regardless of criticism, accepted his...