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Crawford Howell Toy, D.D., LL.D.

Professor of Hebrew, Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass.

Contributions:
BOESCHENSTAIN, JOHANNES – German Hebraist; born at Eslingen in 1472; said to have been of Jewish parentage, this statement, however, being denied by himself. He was among the earliest to revive the study of Hebrew in Germany, having been a pupil of Moses...
BOULÉ – Court of justice, or Sanhedrin; also the seat of the senate (Josephus, "B. J." v. 4, § 2; hence also , βουλευτής = "senator"; Giṭ. 37a; Sem. viii., "the boulés or senates of Judea"). According to Yer. Ned. iii. 2; Shab. iii. 8;...
BREITHAUPT, JOHN FREDERICK – John Frederick Breithaupt.(From Breithaupt's "Rashi.")Christian Hebraist and rabbinical scholar at the beginning of the eighteenth century; aulic councilor to the emperor and to the duke of Gotha. He produced an elaborate...
BROUGHTON, HUGH – English Christian divine and rabbinical scholar; born 1549 at Oldbury, Shropshire; died at Tottenham, near London, Aug. 4, 1612. Broughton was entered at Magdalene College, Cambridge, where he began his Hebrew studies under the...
BROWN, WILLIAM – Scottish clergyman; born 1766; died 1835; for forty-three years minister of Eskdalemuir, Scotland. He is the author of "Antiquities of the Jews Carefully Compiled from Authentic Sources, and Their Customs Illustrated from Modern...
BUXTORF (BUXTORFF), JOHANNES – Appointed Professor of Hebrew. The principal founder of rabbinical study among Christian scholars; born Dec. 25, 1564, at Kamen, Westphalia; died Sept. 13, 1629, at Basel. He studied at Marburg and afterward at Herborn, where...
BUXTORF, JOHANNES – Becomes Professor of Hebrew. Johannes Buxtorf, the son of the elder; known as Johannes Buxtorf II.; Christian Hebraist; born at Basel Aug. 13, 1599; died there Aug. 16, 1664. Before the age of thirteen he matriculated at the...
BUXTORF, JOHANNES B. – Nephew of Johannes Jakob Buxtorf; born Jan. 8, 1663; died June 19, 1732. He was professor of Hebrew at Basel, and published "Specimen Phraseologiæ V. T. Hebr." (Frankfort-on-the-Main, 1717).T. M. K.
BUXTORF, JOHANNES JAKOB – Professor of Hebrew at Basel; son of Johannes Buxtorf II. by his fourth wife; born Sept. 4, 1645; died April 4, 1705. According to a letter written by his father to Coccejus ("Op. Anecd." ii. 738) in 1663, he was able at...
BUXTORF, JOHANNES RUDOLPHUS – Great-grandson of Johannes Buxtorf I.; born at Basel Oct. 24, 1747; died 1815. After completing his studies in his native city, he became private tutorin the family of the count of Schaumburg-Lippe. On his return to Basel he...
CALLENBERG, JOHANN HEINRICH – Professor of theology and philology, and promoter of conversionist enterprise among the Jews; born of peasant parents at Molschleben Jan. 12, 1694; died July 11, 1760. In 1735 he was appointed professor of philology in the...
CALMET, AUGUSTIN – French Catholic theologian, historian, and Biblical scholar; born 1672 at Mesnil-la-Horgne in Lorraine; died 1757 in Paris. In 1688 he entered the Order of St. Benedict, and began his studies. Coming across the smaller Hebrew...
CALVERT, THOMAS – English Hebrew scholar; born 1606; died at York March, 1679. He wrote "The Blessed Jew of Morocco" (York, 1648), an adaptation of the well-known letter of Samuel Maroccanus, itself probably derived from the polemical treatise of...
CALVÖR, CASPER – Lutheran theologian; born Nov. 8, 1650, at Hildesheim, Prussia; died at Clausthal May 11, 1725. He became master of arts in 1674, deacon at Zellerfeld in 1677, superintendent in 1684, councilor of the consistory in 1708, and...
CAMPEN, JOHN VAN – Christian professor of Hebrew at Louvain and Cracow; died at Freiburg in Breisgau Sept. 6, 1538. He compiled a Hebrew grammar from Elias Levita's work, which ran through three editions (Cracow, 1534; Paris, 1539, 1543). He also...
CAPITO (KÖPFEL), WOLFGANG FABRICIUS – German Hebrew scholar; born at Hagenau, Alsace, in 1478; died Nov., 1541. In 1515 he was appointed professor of theology at Basel; and eight years later provost of St. Thomas, Strasburg. He wrote a Hebrew grammar and various...
CAPPEL, LOUIS (LUDOVICUS CAPPELLUS) – Christian theologian and Hebrew scholar; descended from an old aristocratic French Hugue-not family; born Oct. 15, 1585; died June 18, 1658. In consequence of the so-called Tractate of Nemours of July 7, 1585, Cappel's parents...
CARPZOV, JOHANN BENEDICT II. – German Christian theologian and Hebraist; born 1639; died 1699. He was a member of a family which, like the Buxtorfs, produced a long line of distinguished scholars. He studied Hebrew under Johannes Buxtorf II. in Basel, was...
CARPZOV, JOHANN GOTTLOB – German Christian Old Testament scholar; born Sept. 26, 1679, in Dresden; died April 27, 1767, at Lübeck; nephew of Johann Benedict II., and son of Samuel Benedict; most famous and most important Biblical scholar of the Carpzov...
CASPARI, CHARLES PAUL – German Semite and Biblical scholar; born at Dessau 1814; died 1892. His parents were Jews, and he was reared in the Jewish faith, but in 1838 became a Christian. In 1847 he was called to the University of Christiania, where he...
CHEYNE, THOMAS KELLEY – English Christian Biblical critic, and Oriel professor of Biblical exegesis at the University of Oxford, England; born at London Sept. 18, 1841; educated at Merchant Taylors' School, London, Worcester College, Oxford, and under...
CHURCH FATHERS – Their Importance to Judaism. The early teachers and defenders of Christianity. The most important of the fathers lived and worked in a period when Christianity still had many points of contact with Judaism, and they found that...
CHURCH FATHERS – Their Importance to Judaism. The early teachers and defenders of Christianity. The most important of the fathers lived and worked in a period when Christianity still had many points of contact with Judaism, and they found that...
CLAVERING, ROBERT – Bishop of Peterborough and Christian Hebraist; born in 1671; died July 21, 1747. He was regius professor of Hebrew at Oxford from 1715 until his death. In 1705 at Oxford he published a translation of Maimonides' "Yad," Hilkot...
CONCORDANCE – An alphabetical list of all the words in a book, with references to the passages where each word is found. The appellation indicates the concordance or similarity of all such passages. In Jewish literature the term is applied...