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Crawford Howell Toy, D.D., LL.D.

Professor of Hebrew, Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass.

Contributions:
JAMES, GENERAL EPISTLE OF – Letter of exhortation and instruction, written by "James, a servant of God and of the Lord Jesus Christ," and addressed "to the twelve tribes which are of the Dispersion" (i. 1, R. V.). The writer is supposed to be James, the...
JEKUTHIEL BEN JUDAH HA-KOHEN – Grammarian of Prague; lived in the second half of the thirteenth century. Baer claimed to have seen a manuscript which gave 1171 as the date of Jekuthiel's death ("Orient. Lit." xii. 6), but according to Steinschneider ("Cat....
JEROME (EUSEBIUS HIERONYMUS SOPHRONIUS) – Church father; next to Origen, who wrote in Greek, the most learned student of the Bible among the Latin ecclesiastical writers, and, previous to modern times, the only Christian scholar able to study the Hebrew Bible in the...
JOB, TESTAMENT OF – Greek apocryphal book, containing a haggadic story of Job. It was first published by Angelo Mai in the seventh volume of the "Scriptorum Veterum Nova Collectio" (pp. 180-191, Rome, 1833), and was translated in Migne's...
JOSEPH OF ARIMATHÆA – Wealthy Jew (probably a member of the Essene fraternity) who, out of sympathy with Jesus, gave him burial in one of the tombs cut in the rocks near the city of Jerusalem. The story is told with some variations in all the...
JOSEPH BEN DAVID HA-YEWANI – Greek grammarian and lexicographer; flourished at the end of the thirteenth or about the middle of the fourteenth century. He was the author of a still unpublished work entitled "Menorat ha-Ma'or," a Hebrew lexicon preceded by a...
JUBILEES, BOOK OF – Midrashic commentary on the Book of Genesis and on part of the Book of Exodus, in the form of an apocalypse, containing the views, legends, and religious practises of the most rigid Pharisaic (or Hasidæan) school of the time of...
JUDAH ARYEH BEN ẒEBI HIRSCH – French Hebraist; flourished in the beginning of the eighteenth century; born in Krotoschin, Germany. He lived at Avignon and Carpentras, and is generally called after the latter town. He was the author of: "Ohole Yehudah"...
JUDAS ISCARIOT – One of the twelve Apostles of Jesus; he betrayed his master and delivered him up to the priests for judgment (Matt. x. 4; Mark iii. 19; Luke vi. 16). That Jesus should have shown so little foresight in the choice of an apostle...
JUDITH, BOOK OF – Title. An Apocryphal book in sixteen chapters. The book receives its title from the name of its principal character, Judith ( = "Jewess"; in the Greek transliteration, Ἰουδείθ), a name found also in Gen. xxvi. 34 (comp. the...
KAF – Eleventh letter of the Hebrew alphabet. The name is generally taken to mean "hollow of the hand," to which the shape of the letter has a near resemblance (see Alphabet). Kaf belongs to the six consonants called "mutes," and has...
KENNICOTT, BENJAMIN – English Christian Hebraist; born at Totness, England, April 4, 1718; died at Oxford Aug. 18, 1783. He was, at first, master of the "Blue Coat," or charity, school at Totness. Attracting the attention of the local gentry by some...
KÖCHER, HERMANN FRIEDRICH – German Christian Hebraist; born at Osnabrück in 1747; died April 2, 1792. He was the author of "Specimen Observationum Philologicarum in I Sam. ii." Jena, 1772; "Comm. Sistens Explicationem Vocum et Gen. i. 3, 5, de Deo...
ḲOF – Nineteenth letter of the Hebrew alphabet; for its form see Alphabet. The meaning ofthe name is uncertain. It corresponds in form to the Greek "koppa" and the English "q," and is distinguished in pronunciation from Kaf in that it...
KÖNIG, FRIEDRICH EDUARD – German Protestant theologian; born at Reicheribach, Saxony, Nov. 15, 1846; Ph.D., 1874, Leipsic; D.D., 1888, Erlangen. He was appointed professor of theology, first at Leipsic, then at Rostock, and, in 1900, at Bonn.König has...
KUENEN, ABRAHAM – Dutch Christian Old Testament scholar; born in Haarlem, North Holland, Sept. 16, 1828; died in Leyden Dec. 10, 1891. He was educated at Leyden (1846-51), where in 1852 he was appointed assistant professor, and in 1855 professor,...
LADVOCAT, JEAN-BAPTISTE – Christian Hebraist; born at Vaucouleurs Jan. 3, 1709; died at Paris Dec. 29, 1765. Though he achieved particular distinction as a Hebraist and Biblical exegete, this was not the only branch of scholarship in which he excelled:...
LAMED – Twelfth letter of the Hebrew alphabet; on its form see Alphabet. The meaning of the name is uncertain. The letter is a liquid, pronounced like the English "l"; it interchanges with the other liquid consonants and semivowels, and...
LAURENCE, RICHARD – English Christian Hebraist; born in Bath 1760; died in Dublin 1838. He was made regius professor of Hebrew and canon of Christ Church, Oxford, in 1814, and Archbishop of Cashel, Ireland, in 1822. His chief contribution to...
LIGHTFOOT, JOHN – English Christian divine and Talmudist; born at Stoke-upon-Trent 1602; died at Ely 1675. He passed through Christ's College, Cambridge, and later took orders, serving for the rest of his life as curate, rector, and canon. From...
LONZANO, ABRAHAM BEN RAPHAEL DE – Austrian grammarian; lived at the beginning of the eighteenth century. He was baptized at Idstein and took the name of Wilhelm Heinrich Neumann. His Hebrew grammar, "Ḳinyan Abraham," was published in Zolkiev in 1723 (De le Roi,...
LYRA, NICOLAS DE – French exegete; born at Lyre, near Evreux, Normandy, about 1270; died at Paris Oct. 23, 1340. The only certain dates in connection with his life are furnished by his epitaph in the monastery of the Minorites at Paris, which has...
MACCABEES, BOOKS OF – I. There are four books which pass under this name—I, II, III, and IV Maccabees. The first of these is the only one of the four which can be regarded as a reliable historical source.I Maccabees: The First Book of the Maccabees...
MACHIR BEN JUDAH – French scholar of the tenth and eleventh centuries; born at Metz; brother of Gershom Me'or ha-Golah. He is known by his dictionary entitled "Alfa Beta de-R. Makir," not extant, but quoted often by Rashi, RaSHBaM, Eliezer b....
MAI, JOHANN HEINRICH – German Protestant theologian; born in Pforzheim Feb., 1653; died in Giessen Sept., 1719. In 1689 he became professor in the University of Giessen. Besides various Biblical exegetical works he wrote: "Synopsis Theologiæ Judaicæ"...