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Crawford Howell Toy, D.D., LL.D.

Professor of Hebrew, Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass.

Contributions:
NUN – Fourteenth letter of the Hebrew alphabet. The name signifies "fish," and perhaps indicates the original shape of the letter (see Alphabet). The "nun" has two forms, one (נ) for the beginning or middle of a word and one (ן) for...
OKLAH WE-OKLAH – Old Masoretic work in which the notices and rules of the Masorah are collected; it consists of groups of rare words or of certain peculiarities of the text arranged either alphabetically, or in the order of the books of the...
OLSHAUSEN, JUSTUS – German Orientalist; born in Hohenfelde May 9, 1800; died at Berlin Dec. 22, 1882; educated at the universities of Kiel (Ph.D. 1823), Berlin, and Paris. He became professor of Oriental languages at Kiel in 1830, but lost this...
ORIGEN – Christian theologian; born in Alexandria about 185; died in Tyre about 254. Trained in the study of the Bible by his father, and in philosophy by the Neoplatonist Ammonius Saccas, he early devoted himself to the philosophical...
PALEOGRAPHY – Greek and Latin Inscriptions: Besides a certain number of pagan inscriptions mentioning Jewish affairs, about 500 texts referring directly to persons professing the Jewish religion are known. These have been found throughout the...
PARḤON, SOLOMON B. ABRAHAM IBN – Spanish philologist of the twelfth century; a native of Ḳal'ah (Ḳal'at Ayyub, Calatayud), Aragon. In the preface to his lexicon he mentions as his teachers, besides a certain R. Ephraim of whom nothing more is known, the two...
PASUḲ – Passive participle of the Aramaic word "pesaḳ" (to cut off), meaning a section or division. It is, however, used almost exclusively to denote a Bible verse, as, for example, in Giṭ. 56a: "Tell me thy Bible verse [pasuḳ]." The...
PE – Seventeenth letter of the Hebrew alphabet. Its name appears to be connected with "peh" = "mouth" (see Alphabet). "Pe" has a double pronunciation: (1) as a surd mute (which sound is indicated by the dagesh lene) it is identical...
PERINGER, GUSTAV, VON LILIENBLAD – Christian Orientalist; born 1651; died at Stockholm Jan. 5, 1710; studied under Wagenseil at Altdorf. He was professor of Oriental languages at Upsala from 1681 to 1695, and then librarian at Stockholm. About 1690 King Charles...
PETER OF ALESSANDRIA (PETRUS DE ALEXANDRIA) – Italian monk of the fourteenth century; born at Alessandria, Italy. He translated about 1342, at the request of Pope Clement VI., the treatise of Levi ben Gershon on his astronomical instrument which subsequently had some...
PHILO JUDÆUS – Alexandrian philosopher; born about 20 B.C. at Alexandria, Egypt; died after 40 C.E. The few biographical details concerning him that have been preserved are found in his own works (especially in "Legatio ad Caium," §§ 22, 28;...
PHILO JUDÆUS – Alexandrian philosopher; born about 20 B.C. at Alexandria, Egypt; died after 40 C.E. The few biographical details concerning him that have been preserved are found in his own works (especially in "Legatio ad Caium," §§ 22, 28;...
POCOCK, EDWARD – English Christian Orientalist and theologian; born at Oxford Nov. 8, 1604; died there Sept. 12, 1691. He studied Oriental languages at Oxford and elsewhere; was chaplain of the English "Turkey Merchants" in Aleppo from 1630 to...
PRONUNCIATION, MODERN, OF HEBREW – Like Syriac, and probably under its influence, Hebrew has been handed down with a twofold pronunciation, the Ashkenazic and the Sephardic. The former is usually traced to Babylonia, the latter to Palestine. There are at present...
PROVERBS, BOOK OF – Title and Divisions. One of the Ketubim, or Hagiographa, belonging to the group of "Ḥokmah," or "Wisdom" books. The Masoretic superscription to the first and twenty-fifth chapters is "Proverbs of Solomon" ("Mishle Shelomoh"; and...
PSALMS OF SOLOMON, THE – Pseudepigraphic work not contained in the Septuagint (and therefore not included in the Apocrypha). At present it exists only in Greek and in translations made from the Greek; but it is probable that it was written originally in...
PSEUDEPIGRAPHA – Literally "books having false titles," fraudulently or erroneously ascribed to the authors whose names they bear. "Thus Dionysius of Halicarnassus speaks of "pseudepigraphic orations" of Demosthenes; that is, orations commonly...
PSEUDO-PHOCYLIDES – A Judæo-Hellenistic poet and the author of a didactic poem in epic style of 250 verses. He assumed the name of the ancient gnomic bard Phocylides of Miletus; and medieval scholars, regardless of criticism, accepted his...
PUBLICAN – Local tax-farmer; the office existed among the Jews under the Roman dominion. The Romans were accustomed to farm out, generally for five years, the customs dues on exports. These taxes were mainly ad valorem, and therefore, as...
PUNCTUATION – When the Biblical text received its final form in the schools of Palestine during the first and second centuries, and the Masorah began its task of preserving this text, it consisted exclusively of letters to which were added no...
RABE, JOHANN JACOB – German translator of the Mishnah and the Talmud; born 1710 in Lindflur, Unterfranken; died Feb. 12, 1798. He was city chaplain in Ansbach (Onolzbach). "This man is a strong Talmudist," wrote Moses Mendelssohn to Herder under...
RACA (REḲA) – Noun formed from the adjective "reḳ" (="empty"), and applied to a person without education and devoid of morals (comp. Judges xi. 3). The noun occurs several times in the Talmud; e.g., Ta'an. 20b; Ber. 22a. 33b; Giṭ. 58a; B. B....
RACES OF THE OLD TESTAMENT – The ancient Hebrews from time to time came in contact with peoples who were obviously of different speech, customs, or physique from their own. To these they learned to give names. A whole list of such names is contained in...
RAZIEL – Angel, first named in the Slavonic Book of Enoch (written before the common era; see Jew. Encyc. i. 591, s.v. Angelology), where, under the name "Raguel" or "Rasuel," he is mentioned together with Shemiel or Shemuel. Apart from...
RAZIEL, BOOK OF – Collection of secret writings, probably compiled and edited by the same hand, but originally not the work of one author. This appears from the fact that the book contradicts itself in regard to the person to whom its contents...