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Crawford Howell Toy, D.D., LL.D.

Professor of Hebrew, Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass.

Contributions:
SOLOMON, TESTAMENT OF – Pseudepigraphic treatise on the forms and activities of demons and the charms effective against them. Extracts from the work are given by Fabricius ("Codex Pseudepig. Vet. Test." i. 1047) from the notes of Gilbertus Gaulminus on...
SOLOMON BEN ELIJAH SHARBIṬ HA-ZAHAB – Oriental astronomer, poet, and grammarian; lived at Salonica and later at Ephesus, in the second half of the fourteenth century. Steinschneider supposes that the name "Sharbiṭ ha-Zahab" is the Hebrew equivalent of the Greek name...
SOLOMON BEN MEÏR – French grammarian and Biblical commentator of the twelfth century, grandson of Rashi and brother of the great tosafists Isaac ben Meïr (RIBaM), Samuel ben Meïr (RaSHBaM), and Jacob Tam, though the old and many modern authorities...
SONG OF SONGS, THE – One of the Five Megillot. The Hebrew title, , is commonly understood to mean "the most excellent of songs, composed by Solomon" (not "one of the songs composed by Solomon"); the title, however, is later than the poem, in which...
SONG OF THE THREE HOLY CHILDREN, THE – Greek insertion in the Book of Daniel after iii. 23, the only one of the additions to Daniel that really add to the text of the book. The title given above is inexact: under it are included two distinct pieces, namely, (1) the...
STADE, BERNHARD – German Protestant Hebraist and historian of Israel; born in Arnstadt May 11, 1848. He became privat-docent in the University of Leipsic in 1873, and professor of theology at Giessen in 1875.Of Stade's works the following may be...
SUSANNA, THE HISTORY OF – One of the books of the Protestant Apocrypha; entitled in some manuscripts "The Judgment of Daniel." The Greek text is extant in two recensions: that of the Septuagint (given only in the Codex Chisianus) and that of Theodotion....
SUSPENDED LETTERS – There are four suspended or elevated ("teluyah") letters in the Hebrew Bible: (1) the "nun" in , in Judges xviii. 30; (2) the "'ayin" in , in Ps. lxxx. 13; (3) the "'ayin" in , in Job xxxviii. 13; and (4) the "'ayin" in , ib....
SYMMACHUS – Translator of the Bible into Greek; flourished at the end of the second or the beginning of the third century of the common era. According to Eusebius and Jerome, he was an Ebionite and consequently a Christian; according to...
TAGIN – Decorative "crowns" which are sometimes placed on the letters of the Hebrew alphabet. The taga is regularly composed of three flourishes or strokes, each of which resembles a small "zayin" and is called "ziyyun" ( = "armor,"...
TAW – The twenty-second letter of the Hebrew alphabet. Its name is connected with "taw" = "sign" ( see Alphabet). "Taw" has a twofold pronunciation: (1) a soft, lisping sound uttered with a gentle expiration, like the Greek "theta"...
TESTAMENTS OF THE TWELVE PATRIARCHS – Title of twelve connected documents which purport to record the last words and exhortations of the twelve sons of Jacob. They also bear in several of the manuscripts subtitles indicating the virtues inculcated or the vices...
TESTAMENTS OF THE TWELVE PATRIARCHS – Title of twelve connected documents which purport to record the last words and exhortations of the twelve sons of Jacob. They also bear in several of the manuscripts subtitles indicating the virtues inculcated or the vices...
ṬET – Ninth letter of the Hebrew alphabet. The signification of its name is uncertain. Its sound is that of an emphatic surd dental (palatal English "t"). It occurs only as a radical, seldom as a formative element. It sometimes...
TETRAGRAMMATON – The quadriliteral name of God, , which is thus referred to in Josephus, in the Church Fathers, in the magic papyri, and in the Palestinian Talmud (Yoma 40a, below), whence it has passed into the modern languages. Other...
THEODORE OF MOPSUESTIA – Christian bishop and Church father; born and educated at Antioch; died at Mopsuestia about 429; teacher of Nestorius and Theodoret, and the foremost exegete of the school of Antioch, which was represented also by Lucian,...
THEODOTION – Used in Daniel for Septuagint. One of the Greek translators of the Old Testament (see Jew. Encyc. iii. 187, s.v. Bible Translations). He is the supposed author of one of the two extant Greek versions of the Book of Daniel and...
TOBIT, BOOK OF – A late Jewish work, never received into the Jewish canon, and included in the Apocrypha by Protestants, although it was pronounced canonical by the Council of Carthage (397) and the Council of Trent (1546). It takes its name...
TREMELLIUS, JOHN IMMANUEL – Italian Hebraist; born at Ferrara 1510; died at Sedan Oct. 9, 1580. He was educated at the University of Padua. He was converted about 1540 to the Catholic faith through Cardinal Pole, but embraced Protestantism in the following...
TYCHSEN, OLAUS GERHARD – Christian Hebraist and Orientalist; born at Tondern in Sleswick, Denmark, Dec. 14, 1734; died at Rostock, Germany, Dec. 30, 1815. He studied rabbinics at the University of Halle, and journeyed through Germany and Denmark in the...
UGOLINO, BLAISIO – Italian polyhistor; born at Venice about 1700. He is stated to have been a Jewish convert, and was certainly well acquainted with Talmudic literature. He is known for the huge collection of treatises on Jewish
VATKE, JOHANN KARL WILHELM – Christian Hebraist; born March 14, 1806, at Behndorf, Saxony; died in Berlin April 19, 1882. After studying in Halle, Göttingen, and Berlin he became privat-docent in the University of Berlin in 1830, and assistant professor in...
VERSE-DIVISION – Chapter-Divisions Christian. The system of breaking up the Biblical text into verses may seem, both in the original and in the versions, to go hand in hand with its division into chapters. In truth, however, the chapter-division...
VOCALIZATION – Semitic Skeleton Writing. All Semitic script, excepting Ethiopic and Assyro-Babylonian, the latter of which in its origin is held by many to be not Semitic, is purely consonantal, the reader being left to supply the vowels. The...
VULGATE – Earlier Latin Translations. Latin version of the Bible authorized by the Council of Trent in 1546 as the Bible of the Roman Catholic Church. It was the product of the work of Jerome, one of the most learned and scholarly of the...