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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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Victor Rousseau Emanuel,

New York City.

Contributions:
COLLINS, CHARLOTTE – Anglo-American actress; born in London, England, about 1865. She began her stage career at the age of five, when she made her début as a rope-dancer. Having lost both her parents while still a child, she joined her sisters,...
CROMWELL, OLIVER – Silver Salver Bearing the "Arms of the Tribe of Judah."Said to have been presented to Oliver Cromwell by Manasseh ben Israel.(In possession of Sir Samuel Montagu.) Petition of the Jews of England to Olivfr Cromwell, Dated March...
DAMROSCH, LEOPOLD – German-American violinist and conductor; born at Posen, Prussia, Oct. 22, 1832; died in New York Feb. 15, 1885. He commenced to learn the violin at the age of nine, but owing to his parents' opposition, who wished him to study...
DAVIDSON, BENJAMIN – English Orientalist of Jewish birth; died 1871. He was a worker for the British Society for the Propagation of the Gospel Among the Jews, and when that institution founded in London (1847) a college for the training of its...
DAVIS, JAMES (OWEN HALL) – English playwright and journalist; born about 1848. He was educated at University College, London, and took the degree of bachelor of laws in 1869. After devoting some years to the practise of law as a solicitor (1874-86), he...
DELVAILLE, ALBERT – French dramatic author; born at Neuilly-sur-Seine May 30, 1870. He studied at the Ecole Monge (afterward the Ecole Carnot), and then joined his father, who was a dealer in colonial wares. He soon, however, turned to writing...
DISRAELI, BENJAMIN, EARL OF BEACONSFIELD – English statesman; born at London, England, Dec. 21, 1804; died there April 19, 1881. The son of Isaac D'Israeli, he was descended from a wealthy Sephardic family of Venice, his grandfather having come to England to engage in...
DORMIDO, DAVID ABRAVANEL – Warden of the Jewish communities at Amsterdam and London in the seventeenth century; born in one of the principal cities of Andalusia (Spain), where he held the offices of alderman and life-treasurer of the customs and of the...
DREYFUS, FERDINAND – French politician and deputy; born at Paris May 5, 1849. He became editor of the "Siècle," and was elected by the Republican party (March, 1880) as district deputy of Rambouillet (Seine-et-Oise). He was reelected in August,...
DREYFUS, FERDINAND-CAMILLE – French politician; born in Paris Aug. 19, 1851. After a classical and commercial education he prepared himself for the Ecole Polytechnique, but on the outbreak of the Franco-Prussian war left his studies to serve as a volunteer....
DREYFUS-BRISAC, LOUIS LUCIEN – French physician; born at Strasburg Feb. 3, 1849; died May 5, 1903; studied in his native city, and afterward at the Paris Faculté de Médecine, where he became house surgeon in 1873, and titular physician in 1878. He was clinic...
EICHTHAL, GUSTAVE D' – French publicist and Hellenist; born at Nancy March 22, 1804; died at Paris April 9, 1882. At the age of thirteen he became a convert to Roman Catholicism, and when he left the Lycée Henri IV. in 1822, he became a disciple of...
ENNERY, ADOLPHE PHILIPPE D' – French dramatic author; born in Paris June 17, 1811; died there Jan. 26, 1899. By turn a lawyer's clerk, painter, and journalist, in 1831 he made his début as a dramatist as part author of "Emile, ou le Fils d'un Pair de...
FARJEON, BENJAMIN L. – English-Jewish novelist; born in London 1833; died there July 23, 1903; educated at private schools. He emigrated to New Zealand, where he entered upon a literary career and became manager and partial owner of the first daily...
FELD, JULIUS – Rumanian artist; born at Botuschany, Rumania, June 21, 1871. At an early age he went to France and studied at the Ecole des Beaux Arts under Delaunay, Bonnat, and Gérôme. He quickly made his mark as a portrait-painter, and has...
FOULD, ACHILLE – French statesman and financier; born at Paris Nov. 17, 1800; died at Tarbes Oct. 5, 1867. The son of a wealthy banker, he studied banking, and afterward traveled extensively. In 1847 he was chosen deputy for the town of Tarbes;...
FOULD, BENOIT – French politician; born at Paris Nov. 21, 1792; died there July 28, 1858. In 1827 he was nominated judge of the tribunal of commerce. At the legislative elections of May, 1834, he was chosen to represent St. Quentin, and devoted...
FOULD, ÉDOUARD MATHURIN – French politician; born at Paris Dec. 18, 1834; died at Moulins April 8, 1881. On June 1, 1863, he was elected deputy for Allier, and supported the empire. He resigned in 1868. In 1876 he was defeated by the Republican candidate...
FOULD, GUSTAVE EUGÈNE – French politician and author; born at Paris Feb. 19, 1836; died at Asnières Aug. 27, 1884. On June 6, 1869, he was elected deputy of the Basses-Pyrénées, and during the Franco-Prussian war served with the Scouts of the Seine....
FRIARS – Before the institution of the mendicant friars the monastic orders did not play a prominent part in Jewish persecutions. The Cistercian Bernard of Clairvaux actively supported the Jews at the time of the Crusaders' massacres in...
GOLLANCZ, ISRAEL – Secretary of the British Academy; born in London 1864. He was educated at the City of London School and Cambridge University (B.A., 1887). He was lecturer in English at University College 1892-95; lecturer at Cambridgeunder the...
HADAMARD, AUGUSTE – French painter; born at Metz 1823; died in Paris 1886. A pupil of Paul Delaroche, he established himself at Paris, where, in addition to painting, he sketched for the illustrated papers. Among his works the most noticeable are:...
HADAMARD, ZĖLIE – French actress; born at Oran, Algeria, in 1849. The daughter of an army interpreter and professor of Arabic, she wentto Paris and passed at the Conservatoire, making her stage début at the Odéon. After playing in Brussels and...
HALÉVY, LÉON – French author and dramatic writer; brother of Jacques François Fromenthal Halévy; born at Paris Jan. 14, 1802; died at Saint Germain-en-Laye Sept. 2, 1883. After finishing a course at the Lycée Charlemagne, Halévy became a...
HALPHEN, GEORGES-HENRI – French army officer and mathematician; born at Rouen Oct. 30, 1844 died at Versailles May 21, 1889. He studied at the Ecole Polytechnique, and afterward at the Ecole de Metz, becoming lieutenant in 1866 and captain in 1870. He...