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Wilhelm Bacher, Ph.D.

Professor, Jewish Theological Seminary, Budapest, Hungary.

Contributions:
SAMUEL B. MEÏR (RaSHBaM) – French exegete of Ramerupt, near Troyes; born about 1085; died about 1174; grandson of Rashi on his mother's side, and eldest son of the family. He was a pupil of his grandfather, and was at first an adherent of haggadic...
SAMUEL BEN NAḤMAN (NAḤMANI) – Relations with Diocletian. Palestinian amora; born at the beginning of the third and died at the beginning of the fourth century. He was a pupil of R. Jonathan ben Eleazar (Pes. 24a) and one of the most famous haggadists of his...
SAMUEL BEN NATHAN – Amora of the early part of the fourth century, He appears mostly as the transmitter of the sayings of Ḥama b. Ḥanina (Shab. 38a. note; Yer. Shab. 5d). On one occasion Ḥama b. Ḥanina transmits a tradition of Samuel concerning his...
SAMUEL BEN NAṬRONAI – German tosafist of the second half of the twelfth century. He was the pupil and son-in-law of R. Eliezer b. Natan (RABaN), and brother-in-law of R. Joel b. Isaac ha-Levi. He is often cited by his father-in-law in his work "Eben...
SAMUEL YARḤINA'AH – His Birth. Babylonian amora of the first generation; son of Abba b. Abba; teacher of the Law, judge, physician, and astronomer; born about 165 at Nehardea, in Babylonia; died there about 257. As in the case of many other great...
SANDALFON – Name of an angel. It is a Greek formation and synonymous with συνάδελφος (= "cobrother"; see "Orient, Lit." xii. 618; Levy, "Neuhebr. Wörterb." iii. 553a; Krauss, in "Byzantinische Zeitschrift," ii. 533; idem, "Lehnwörter," ii....
SANDALS – Biblical Data: In the warm countries of the East shoes are not such an indispensable part of clothing as in the colder northern countries. Still, people do not go barefoot in mountainous Palestine, especially during the damp...
SANHEDRIN – Hebrew-Aramaic term originally designating only the assembly at Jerusalem that constituted the highest political magistracy of the country. It was derived from the Greek συνέδριον. Josephus uses συνέδριον for the first time in...
SANHEDRIN – Name of a treatise of the Mishnah, Tosefta, and both Talmudim. It stands fourth in the order Neziḳin in most editions, and is divided into eleven chapters containing seventy-one paragraphs in all. It treats chiefly of courtsand...
SAR SHALOM BEN BOAZ – Gaon of Sura, where he died about 859 or 864, having held the gaonate for ten years. He succeeded Kohen Ẓedeḳ I., and was in turn succeeded by Naṭronai b. Hilai. He left more than 100 responsa, a great many of which are to be...
SARAH (SARAI) – Biblical Data: Wife of Abraham, who for a long period remained childless (Gen. xi. 29-30). She accompanied her husband from Haran to Canaan (ib. xii. 5). Driven by famine to take refuge in Egypt, Abraham, fearing that her beauty...
SARSINO (SARCINO), JACOB B. JOSEPH – Italian rabbi of the seventeenth century; pupil of R. Ẓebi Hirsch b. Isaac in Cracow. He was rabbi in Venice, and labored as such together with Leon of Modena. He corrected several books which were printed in Venice, and...
SAUL, ABBA – Tanna of the third generation. In Ab. R. N. xxix. mention is made of an Abba Saul b. Nanos whom Lewy ("Ueber Einige Fragmente aus der Mischnah des Abba Saul," in "Berichte über die Hochschule für die Wissenschaft des Judenthums...
SAUL, ABBA, B. BAṬNIT – Tanna of the second and first centuries B.C. According to Derenbourg, his mother was a Batanian proselyte, whence he derived his name "ben Baṭnit"; it appears from Ned. 23a, however, that "Baṭnit" is a masculine proper name....
SCHERSCHEWSKI, JUDAH JÜDEL BEN BENJAMIN – Lithuanian Talmudist and Hebraist; born in 1804; died at Kovno Sept. 20, 1866. After having studied Talmud and rabbinics under Jacob Meïr Yalovker, Scherschewski was employed in one of the business establishments in Wilna,...
SCHICK, ABRAHAM BEN ARYEH LÖB – Lithuanian Talmudist and author of the nineteenth century; a native of Slonim, government of Grodno. Schick occupied himself especially with midrashic, or haggadic, literature. In this field he published: "Zera' Abraham"...
SCHICK, ELIJAH BEN BENJAMIN – Lithuanian rabbi and preacher; born at Vasilishok, government of Wilna, in 1809; died at Kobrin, government of Kovno, Sept. 2, 1876. He was a pupil of Benjamin, chief rabbi of Grodno. As rabbi he officiated in various towns,...
SCHORR, JOSHUA HESCHEL – Early Career. Galician Hebrew scholar, critic, and communal worker; born at Brody May 22, 1814; died there Sept. 2, 1895. His parents were rich, but, owing to the obscurantism which prevailed in Galicia, Schorr, received a...
SCRIBES – Origin and Meaning. 1. Body of teachers whose office was to interpret the Law to the people, their organization beginning with Ezra, who was their chief, and terminating with Simeon the Just. The original meaning of the Hebrew...
SELIḤAH – Originally for the Day of Atonement. Penitential prayers; perhaps the oldest portion of the synagogal compositions known under the term of Piyyuṭim. The word "seliḥah" (from "salaḥ" = "he forgave") is particularly used in the...
SEMAḤOT – SEPHARDIC VERSICLE MELODY Euphemistic name of the treatise known as "Ebel Rabbati," one of the so-called small or later treatises which in the editions of the Babylonian Talmud are placed after the fourth order, Neziḳin; it...
SEMIKAH – In Sacrifices. A ceremony obligatory on one who offered an animal sacrifice. The regulations governing its observance were as follows: The owner of the sacrificial victim (Sifra, Wayiḳra, v. [ed. Weiss, 6d-7a]) was required to...
SERAH – Daughter of Asher, son of Jacob. She is counted among the seventy members of the patriarch's family who emigrated from Canaan to Egypt (Gen. xlvi. 17), and her name occurs in connection with the census taken by Moses in the...
SET-OFF – Effort of a defendant to set up a cause of action against a plaintiff, to the end that the judgment of the court may satisfy the claims of both at the same time; the "compensatio" of Roman law. Although there is no name for it,...
SETH – Biblical Data: According to Gen. iv. 25, 26 and v. 3-8, Seth was the third son of Adam. He was born after Cain had murdered Abel and when Adam was 130 years old. Seth lived to the age of 912. His eldest son was Enosh, who was...