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Wilhelm Bacher, Ph.D.

Professor, Jewish Theological Seminary, Budapest, Hungary.

Contributions:
ṬARFON – Tanna of the third generation, living in the period between the destruction of the Temple and the fall of Bethar. He was of priestly lineage, and he expressly states that he officiated in the Temple with the priests (Yer. Yoma...
TARGUM – Name. The Aramaic translation of the Bible. It forms a part of the Jewish traditional literature, and in its inception is as early as the time of the Second Temple. The verb , from which the noun is formed, is used in Ezra iv. 7...
TAWUS, JACOB B. JOSEPH – Persian translator of the Bible; flourished in the sixteenth century. The polyglot Pentateuch printed at Constantinople in 1546 included a Persian translation in Hebrew characters, in addition to the Targum of Onḳelos and the...
ṬEBUL YOM – Name of a treatise in the Mishnah and in the Tosefta; in most editions of the Mishnah it is tenth in the order Ṭohorot. According to Lev. xv. 5 et seq., one who takes the prescribed bath still remains unclean until sunset. The...
TEMURAH – Treatise in the Mishnah, Tosefta, and Babylonian Talmud mainly concerned with the regulations in Lev. xxvii. 10, 33 regarding the exchange of consecrated things. In most editions of the Mishnah this treatise is the sixth in the...
TEMURAH, MIDRASH – Ethical haggadic work consisting of three chapters. Its tendency is to prove that changes and differences are necessary to the world's welfare, and that earthly contrasts—as wealth and poverty, beauty and ugliness—serve to...
TEN – The art of counting was founded on the number of the fingers and toes, which constituted the basis for the quinary, decimal, and vigesimal systems, according to whether one hand was used or two, or whether the toes were included...
TERAH – Father of Abraham, Nahor, and Haran (Gen. xi. 26). His original home was Ur of the Chaldees; but later he emigrated with his sons to Haran, where he died (Gen. xi. 32). According to Joshua's remarks at the assembly of the...
TERAPHIM – Plural word of unknown derivation used in the Old Testament to denote the primitive Semitic house-gods whose cult had been handed down to historical times from the earlier period of nomadic wanderings. The translation of the...
ṬEREFAH – Term signifying originally the flesh of a clean animal that had been torn or mortally wounded by beasts of prey, and had been rendered thereby unfit for food. In rabbinical literature the word came to be applied to the flesh of...
TERUMOT – Treatise in the Mishnah, Tosefta, and Palestinian Talmud. There were two kinds of heave-offerings or gifts to the priest: one was theregular heave-offering, known also as the "great heave-offering" ("terumah gedolah"), which the...
THEFT (V12p123001.jpg) AND STOLEN GOODS – The Moral Aspect: To steal is to break one of the Ten Commandments, "Thou shalt not steal"; and it is immaterial whether one steals from an Israelite or from an idolatrous Gentile, from an adult or from a child. The value of a...
THEOPHILUS – High priest; son of Anan, and brother of Jonathan, who was deposed by Vitellius in 37 C.E. in favor of Theophilus (Josephus, "Ant." xviii. 5, § 3). He officiated for about three years, when he was succeeded by Simon Cantheras....
THEUDAS – 1. Pseudo-Messiah, who appeared during the consulate of Cuspius Fadus and succeeded in winning a large number of adherents. In proof of his Messianic mission he is said to have promised to lead his followers across the Jordan...
TITHE – The tenth part of anything, appropriated as tax or sacrifice.—Biblical Data: Tithing one's possessions was a very ancient custom, existing as early as the time of the Patriarchs. Abraham gave Melchizedek "tithes of all" (Gen....
ṬOHOROT – 1. Name of the sixth and last order in the Mishnah and the Tosefta. "Ṭohorot" is a euphemism for uncleanness, all the treatises of this order dealing with the laws governing impurity. The order comprises twelve treatises, which,...
TOKAḤAH – The term used to connote the prediction by Moses of due punishment in case of disobedience of the divine law on the part of the children of Israel. It was first pronounced in Lev. xxvi., and repeated in Deut. xxviii., the...
TOSEFTA – Name of a collection of baraitot which treat in a more complete form than does the Mishnah the subject of traditional law. In tannaitic literature old halakot are often amplified by explanatory notes and additions. Such...
TREES, LAWS CONCERNING – Cutting down fruit-bearing and useful trees is forbidden by the Mosaic law. In time of war the fruit-trees about a besieged city may not be injured or used to build defenses; for war is waged against foes, and not against the...
UÇEDA, SAMUEL BEN ISRAEL DE – Palestinian commentator and preacher; born at Safed in the first quarter of the sixteenth century. His name, Uçeda, originally was derived from the town of that name in the archbishopric of Toledo. He was a pupil of Isaac Luria...
URIM AND THUMMIM – Biblical References. —Biblical Data: Objects connected with the breastplate of the high priest, and used as a kind of divine oracle. Since the days of the Alexandrian translators of the Old Testament it has been asserted that...
VOWS – Promises made under religious sanction. In Talmudic law distinction is made between two principal kinds of vows: (1) A voluntary promise to bring a sacrifice which he who makes the vow is not otherwise in duty bound to bring; or...