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Frants Buhl, Ph.D.

Professor of Semitic Philology at the Copenhagen University, Copenhagen, Denmark; Author of "Geographie des Alten Palestina."

Contributions:
ACHMETHA – Name given in the Old Testament (Ezra, vi. 2) to the Persian city called by the Greeks Ecbatana or Agbatana. In Old Persian it is called Hagmatana; in Babylonian, Agamatanu; while in the works of Arabic historians it appears as...
ACHSHAPH – Town mentioned in Josh. xi. 1 and xii. 20 as the seat of a north Canaanitish king. Robinson ("Biblical Researches," iii. 55, London, 1856) identifies it with the ruins at Kesaf, or Iksaf, a village northwest of Hunin and south...
AJALON – General View of Yâlo—the Ancient Ajalon—Palestine.(From a photograph.)A city in Palestine, from which the adjacent "Valley of Ajalon" took its name (Josh. x. 12). Its location is identical with that of the present Yâlo, a small...
AKRABBIM – This is mentioned in connection with the southeastern boundary of Judah (Num. xxxiv. 4; Josh. xv. 3; Judges, i. 36). It is probably one of the passes which lead from the northern slope of the great Wadi-el-Fikre to the desert...
AR – Occurs as follows in the Old Testament: Num. xxi. 15, 28; Deut. ii. 9, 18, 29; Isa. xv. 1. It is generally identified with the Hebrew "'ir" (city), so that "Ar Moab" would be "city of Moab," a supposed ancient capital of the...
ARABAH – The Hebrew word Arabah ( ) denotes desert, steppe. With the article, it refers especially to that extensive depression the center of which is marked by the Dead Sea. In some passages it is applied to the southern portion of this...
BAAL-GAD – A place situated at the northern limit of Palestine, in the valley of Lebanon, near Mount Hermon (Josh. xi. 17, xii. 7, xiii. 5). Since I Chron. v. 23 mentions Baal-hermon as the northern limit of the tribe of Manasseh, it has...
BAAL-HAMON – A place mentioned in Cant. viii. 11, in which passage Solomon is said to have had a vineyard there: its identity is unknown. Graetz proposes to read "Baal-hermon" for "Baalhamon"; but this is mere conjecture. Balamon (Judith...
BAAL-HANAN – 1. An Edomite king (Gen. xxxvi. 38). He is called the son of Achbor; but the name of his native city is not given. For this andother reasons, Marquart ("Fundamente Israelitischer und Jüdischer Gesch." 1896, pp. 10 et seq.)...
BAAL-HAZOR – A place situated near Ephraim, where Absalom possessed an estate (II Sam. xiii. 23). It was there that during a sheep-shearing festival Amnon was killed at the instigation of his stepbrother Absalom. Baal-hazor has, with some...
BAAL-HERMON – See Baal-gad.J. Jr. F. Bu.
BAAL-MEON – A city in the eastern part of the Jordan district, which is designated in Numbers (xxxii. 3, 38), Joshua (xiii. 17), and Chronicles (v. 8) as Israelitish (Reubenitish), and in Jeremiah (xlviii. 23) and Ezekiel (xxv. 9) as...
BAAL-PERAZIM – A place mentioned in the report of the battle between David and the Philistines in II Sam. v. 20 (compare I Chron. xiv. 11). The Philistines encamped in the valley of Rephaim, while David withdrew to the hill-fortress of Adullam...
BAAL-SHALISHA – A place mentioned in II Kings iv. 42, and in the Talmud (Sanh. 12a). Eusebius identifies it with Baithsarisa, 15 Roman miles to the north of Lydda. This, however, is uncertain, and there is much in favor of connecting...
BAAL-TAMAR – A place near Gibeah, mentioned in the account of the battle between the Benjamites and the other Israelites (Judges xx. 33). Eusebius ("Onomastica Sacra," 238, § 75) knew Baaltamarunder the name of "Beth-thamar"; but at the...
BAAL-ZEPHON – Biblical Data: An Egyptian locality in the neighborhood of the Red Sea. In spite of all attempted combinations (Dillmann-Ryssell on Ex. xiv. 2) its situation is still unknown. An Egyptian god, B'irati Dapuna—that is, Ba'alat...
BAALBEK – A city situated at the base of the western slope of the Anti-Lebanon, in a fertile region. It is the Heliopolis of the Greek and Roman writers, and is famous for the magnificent ruins of several temples—a large one with a vast...
BACA, THE VALLEY OF – A valley mentioned in Ps. lxxxiv. 7 [6 A. V.]. Since it is there said that pilgrims transform the valley into a land of wells, the old translators gave to "Baca" the meaning of a "valley of weeping"; but it signifies rather any...
BAHURIM – A locality in Benjamin to which Phaltiel accompanied his wife Michal from Gallim, when she was being conducted to David at Hebron(II Sam. iii. 16). After David, in his flight from Absalom, had passed over Mt. Olivet, he came to...
BAMOTH-BAAL – An elevated point in the land of Moab (Num. xxii. 41), which was allotted to the Reubenites (Josh. xiii. 17). It is probably identical with the Bamoth between Nahaliel and the "valley that is in the country of Moab, to the top...
BEER LAHAI RO'I – Name of a well in the desert south of Palestine on the road to Shur (Gen. xvi. 7 et seq.), known as the stopping-place of Isaac (Gen. xxiv. 62, xxv. 11). According to the rather artificial and not at all lucid explanation of...
BEER-SHEBA – A place situated on the southern boundary of Judea (compare Judges xx. 1; II Sam. xvii. 11; I Kings xix. 3) which was allotted to the tribe of Simeon (Josh. xix. 2). It is referred to in Gen. xxii. 19 as the dwelling-place of...
BETH-ANATH – A Canaanite city in the territory of Naphtali, the name of which contains, as one of its elements, the name of a god, Anath. Though the Israelites did not succeed in conquering this city, the Canaanitish inhabitants became...
BETH-ARAM – A city east of the Jordan. The Talmud speaks of it as "Bethramta" ( ); Eusebius as "Bethramphta"; and Josephus as "Betharamatha." Herod the Great built a palace there which was destroyed after his death. The city was rebuilt by...
BETH-DAGON – The name of several places apparently in ancient Palestine. The second element is the name of the Philistine god Dagon. In the Old Testament mention is made of a city called "Beth-dagon," allotted to the tribe of Judah (Josh....