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M. Seligsohn,

Diplomé of the Ecole des Hautes Etudes, Paris, France; now New York City.

Contributions:
ENGEDI – A town in the wilderness of Judah (Josh. xv. 62), on the western shore of the Dead Sea (Ezek. xlvii. 10). It was the hiding-place of David when he fled from Saul (I Sam. xxiv. 1, 2). Engedi was celebrated for its vine-yards...
ENGLÄNDER, GABRIEL HIRSCH – Austrian scholar; lived at Vienna in the first half of the nineteenth century. He wrote: "Emunah Lishene 'Afar," prayers to be recited in the cemetery, with a German translation (Vienna, 1828); "Ḳorot Yisrael," extracts from the...
ENOCH BEN SOLOMON AL-ḲUSṬAN-ṬINI – Turkish philosopher and cabalist (according to Wolf, "Bibl. Hebr." i., No. 635, also a physician); lived at Constantinople in the fifteenth century. He wrote " Mar'ot Elohim," a philosophical explanation of the visions of Isaiah...
EPHRAIM BEN JUDAH – Liturgical poet of the twelfth century. According to Zunz ("Literaturgesch." p. 348) he lived in the northern part of France, and may be identical (ib. p. 495) with the Ephraim quoted by Jeroham in his "Toledot Adam we-Ḥawwah"...
EPHRAIM BEN SAMSON – Bible exegete; flourished in France in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries. He was the author of "Perush 'al ha-Torah," which consists chiefly of gemaṭria and "noṭariḳon." He largely followed Eleazar of Worms. The commentary...
EPHRAIM, VEITEL-HEINE – German financier; died at Berlin in 1775. The name means "Veitel, the son of Heine [German for "Ḥayyim"], the son of Ephraim." He was jeweler to the Prussian court and mint-master under Frederick William I. and Frederick the...
EPHRATH – 1. Wife of Caleb (son of Hezron) and mother of Hur (I Chron. ii. 19, 50; iv. 4). 2. Another name for Bethlehem (Gen. xxxv. 19, xlviii. 7; Ruth i. 2, iv. 11; Ps. cxxxii. 6; Micah v. 1). The name "Ephratah" occurs once (I Chron....
EPHRON – 1. Son of Zohar the Hittite; possessor of a field called "Machpelah," which he sold to Abraham for 400 shekels (Gen. xxiii. 8, xxv. 9, xlix. 29). The Talmudists place Ephron's conduct in a poor light, alleging that after having...
EPIPHANIUS – Bishop of Constantia, Cyprus; born at Bezanduke near Eleutheropolis, Palestine, between 310 and 320 (according to Bartolocci, in 288); died at sea in 403. Epiphanius is supposed to have been born of Jewish parents and to have...
ER – 1. First son of Judah by Shuah the Canaanite (Gen. xxxviii. 3; Num. xxvi. 19). He died soon after marrying Tamar, because he "was wicked in the sight of the Lord" (Gen. xxxviii. 7). What his sin was is explained in Bereshit R....
ERGAS, JOSEPH BEN IMMANUEL – Italian rabbi and cabalist; born in Leghorn 1685; died May 19, 1730. He is frequently mentioned by Meldola in his responsa "Mayim Rabbim," by Morpurgo in his "Shemesh Ẓedaḳah," and in the "Milḥamah la-Adonai" (p. 48).Ergas...
ESCAPA – Rabbi of Smyrna; flourished in the first half of the seventeenth century; probably born at Uskup, European Turkey, after which place he is named. At first rabbi and chief of the yeshibah at Salonica, he later filled the same...
ESHTAOL – A town in the lowland of Judah (Josh. xv. 33), generally mentioned in company with Zoreah, both towns being allotted to Dan out of Judah (ib. xix. 41). Between these two towns there was a place named "Mahaneh-dan," the scene of...
ESHTEMOA – A town in Judah allotted with its suburbs to the priests (Josh. xv. 50, xxi. 14; I Chron. vi. 57). David frequented this place during his wanderings (I Sam. xxx. 28). It is known now under the name of "Al-Samu'a," a village...
ESKELES, GABRIEL BEN JUDAH LÖW – Polish rabbi; died at Nikolsburg, Moravia, Feb. 2, 1718. At first dayyan at Cracow during the rabbinate of his teacher, Aaron Samuel Kaidanower (1671), Eskeles successively occupied the rabbinates of Olkusz, government of...
ESKELES, ISSACHAR BERUSH – Austrian rabbi and financier; born 1692; died at Vienna March 2, 1753; son of Gabriel Eskeles and son-in-law of Samson Wertheimer. Eskeles called himself "Issachar Berush of Cracow," although at the time of his birth his father...
ESPERIAL, SAMUEL – Physician of Cordova, Spain. He was the author of a treatise on surgery written for David of Jaen in Spanish, but with Hebrew characters (Vatican MS. No. 372).Bibliography: Wolf, Bibl. Hebr. i., No. 2047; Steinschneider, Jewish...
ETAM – 1. Village of the tribe of Simeon (I Chron. iv. 32), not found in the parallel list of localities in Joshua.2. Place in Judah, near Bethlehem, fortified and garrisoned by Rehoboam (II Chron. xi. 6).3. A rock, also in Judah, to...
ETHAUSEN, ALEXANDER BEN MOSES – German scholar; lived at Fulda in the seventeenth century. He was the author of a Judæo-German work in two parts: the first, "Bet Yisrael," a history of the Jews up to the destruction of the Second Temple; and the second, "Bet...
ETHER – One of the cities in the lowland of Judah allotted to Simeon (Josh. xv. 42, xix. 7).E. G. H. M. Sel.
ETTHAUSEN, ISAAC SECKEL BEN MENAHEM – German rabbi; flourished in the first half of the eighteenth century, officiating as rabbi in various German towns during a period of fifty-five years. He was the author of "Or Ne'elam," a collection of fifty-eight responsa...
EUNUCH – Biblical Data: As throughout the Orient in very ancient times, and more especially in Egypt and Assyria, where they seem to have held the most important offices, there were eunuchs in the kingdom of Israel. The reference to them...
EZBAI – Father of Naarai, one of David's thirty mighty warriors (I Chron. xi. 37). The parallel list of II Samuel has "Paarai the Arbite" (xxiii. 35) instead of "Naarai the son of Ezbai." Kennicott concluded ("Dissertation," p. 209)...
EZBON – 1. Son of Gad, and father of one of the Gadite families (Gen. xlvi. 16). In Num. xxvi. 16 "Ezbon" is replaced by "Ozni" ( ). 2. A son of Bela, son of Benjamin (I Chron. vii. 7).E. G. H. M. Sel.
EZER – Theophorous name, shortened either from "Eleazar" or from "Azriel," both occurring in the Bible. 1. Son of Ephraim, slain by the inhabitants of Gath (I Chron. vii. 21). 2. A Levite who assisted Nehemiah in reconstructing the...