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AVÉ-LALLEMENT, FREDERICK CHRISTIAN BENEDICT – Noted criminologist; born in Lübeck May 23, 1809; died there July 20, 1892. In his standard work, "Das Deutsche Gaunertum," Leipsic, 1858-62, he devotes a chapter to the Jews, in which he expresses views unfavorable to their...
AVEN – 1. One of several Egyptian cities threatened with God's vengeance (Ezek. xxx. 17). The name is evidently a corruption or an intentional vowel-change of "On" (Gen. xli. 45), which is thus made to signify "vanity." The Septuagint...
AVENEL, GEORGES – French author; born at Chaumont-en-Vexin, department of the Oise, France, Dec. 31, 1828; died at Bougival July 1, 1876. He was a brother of Paul Avenel. Avenel devoted the greater part of his life to a study of the French...
AVENEL, HENRI MAYER – French author; born in Paris, March 7, 1853. He is an adopted son of Paul Avenel. He began his career by editing "L' Événement," the daily political Parisian paper, and several departmental newspapers. In 1888 he took charge of...
AVENEL, PAUL – French author; born at Chaumont-en-Vexin, department of the Oise, France, Oct. 9, 1823. After a brief course in medicine at the University of Paris, he, in 1850, abandoned his studies to devote himself exclusively to literature....
AVENGER OF BLOOD – Biblical Data: (Hebrew "go'el"): The Hebrew name for the clansman, "next of kin," upon whom devolved the duties: (1) of avenging, on the person of the murderer, the blood of a murdered kinsman—in this capacity the more specific...
AVERROES – Jewish Preservation of His Writings. Arabian philosopher of the twelfth century; born at Cordova in 1126; died in 1198. Although himself a prolific writer on philosophy and medicine, his chief importance is as a commentator upon...
AVERROISM – Averroes, like his contemporary Maimonides, was a strict Peripatetic; yet they differed greatly in matters of faith. While Maimonides, with all his admiration for Aristotle, dared to contradict his theories, or at least sought...
AVESTA – The canonical book of the religious sect known as the Parsees, more frequently though less precisely called Zend-Avesta—an inversion of the Pahlavi phrase "Avistāk va Zand," the Scriptures and the Commentary or the Law and Its...
AVIANUS, HIERONYMUS – Christian Oriental scholar; lived at Leipsic at the end of the sixteenth and at the beginning of the seventeenth century. He devoted himself to Hebrew versification, and published a work in two volumes, entitled, "Clavis Poeseos...
AVICEBRON, SOLOMON IBN GABIROL – See Ibn Gabirol.
AVICENNA (ABU ALI IBN ABDALLAH IBN SINA) – Physician and philosopher of note; born at Bokhara in 980; died in 1037. His works, which were brought to Spain about one hundred years after their publication, exerted a great influence upon Jewish thought in the Middle Ages....
AVIGDOR, ELIM D' – Engineer and communal worker (died in London Feb. 9, 1895); was the eldest son of Count Salamon Henri d'Avigdor and of Rachel, second daughter of Sir Isaac Lyon Goldsmid. He was educated at University College, London, and the...
AVIGDOR, JACOB – Chief rabbi ("ḥakam bashi") at Constantinople from 1860 to 1863; born 1794; died 1874. He was a capable Talmudist and conversant with several foreign languages. Avigdor was instrumental in organizing several institutions in the...
AVIGDOR, JULES D' – Banker, and member of the Piedmont Parliament; born in Nice; died at Paris February, 1856. He was a grandson of Isaac Samuel d'Avigdor, secretary of the Paris Sanhedrin; See Sanhedrin. He was the first Jew elected by his...
AVIGDOR, RACHEL, COUNTESS D' – Communal worker at London, England; born Sept. 19, 1816; died Nov. 5, 1896. She was the second daughter of Sir Isaac Lyon and Isabel Goldsmid, and was privately educated by some of the most eminent teachers of the time,...
AVIGNON – Early History. The Synagogue at Avignon.(From a photograph.) Capital of the department of Vaucluse, France; formerly seat of the papal court. The first settlement of Jews in Avignon goes back probably to the second century of...
AVILA – Town in Old Castile, fifteen miles from Madrid. In the Middle Ages it was one of the wealthiest and most flourishing cities of Spain. Jews have resided there since 1085, when they dwelt in the street called "Calle de Lomo" (now...
AVILA, ELIEZER B. SAMUEL DE – Author of rabbinical works, and rabbi at Rabat, Morocco; born 1714; died at Rabat Feb. 7, 1761. Avila was a scion of an illustrious family of scholars. His father Samuel, his grandfather Moses, and Ḥayyim b. Moses ibn Attar, his...
AVILA, SAMUEL BEN MOSES BEN ISAAC DE – Rabbi and preacher at Mequenez, Morocco, and later at Salé, Morocco, born in the first-named place in 1687 or 1688. He published, under the title of "Ozen Shemuel," a collection of sermons: Five on "Repentance," preached on the...
AVILA, SAMUEL BEN SOLOMON DE – Talmudist; lived at Morocco in the eighteenth century. He was the author of "'Oz we-Hadar" (Might and Splendor), Leghorn, 1855, containing novellæ on the Talmudic treatises Shebu'ot, 'Abodah Zarah, and Horayot.Bibliography:...
AVIMS AVITES – See Avvites.
AVITUS OF AUVERGNE – Bishop of Clermont-Ferrand, France, in the sixth century. While the Roman bishops at that time generally treated the Jews with great liberality, while Pope Gregory I. exhorted the clergy and the princes against the use of force...
AVLONA – Varying names of a town and seaport of Albania, on the Gulf of Avlona, on the Adriatic. From early times there seems to have been a flourishing Jewish community in the place. Messer David Leon, born about 1470, son of the...
AVVITES, AVVA, AVVIM – 1. A people mentioned in Deut. ii. 23 as being dispossessed by the Caphtorim. This, however, could not have taken place before the days of Joshua, for it is stated in Josh. xiii. 3 that the Israelites upon entering Canaan failed...