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ADAM ḲADMON – Philo. The various philosophical (Gnostic) views concerning the original man are, in spite of their differences, intimately related, being a compound of Oriental mythology, Greek philosophy, and rabbinical theology. The first to...
ADAMAH – Fortified city of Naphtali, northwest of the Sea of Galilee (Josh. xix. 36); identified by Conder with modern 'Admah, north of Beth-shean. G. B. L.
ADAMANT – This term occurs three times in the Old Testament (Ezek. iii. 9, Zech. vi. 12, Jer. xvii. 1), and is used as a translation for shamir. Although no definite idea can be gathered concerning the identity of the substance intended...
ADAMANTIUS – Jewish physician, author, and naturalist (ἰατρικ࿶ν λόγων σοφιστής; see Socrates, "Hist. Eccl." vii. 13); lived in Alexandria in the fourth century. He prepared an abridgment, in two volumes, of the Φυσιογνωμικά, a work on...
ADAM-SALOMON, ANTONY SAMUEL – French sculptor; born at La Ferté-sous-Jouarre, in the department of Seine-et-Marne, France, 1818; died in Paris, April 29, 1881. Adam-Salomon was intended for a mercantile career, which he followed for some time at...
ADAMS, HANNAH – American author of a Jewish history; born at Medfield, near Boston, in 1755 or 1756; died at Brookline, Mass., November 15, 1832; one of the earliest women writers of America. She acquired the rudiments of Greek, Latin, and...
ADAMS, JOHN – Second president of the United States; born at Braintree, Mass., Oct. 19 (old style), 1735; died at Quincy, Mass., July 4, 1826. In the later years of his life he devoted much time and thought to the consideration of the history...
ADAR – 1. A Benjamite, son of Bela (I Chron. viii. 3). 2. A border town of Judah (Josh. xv. 3). G. B. L.
ADAR – The twelfth ecclesiastical and sixth civil month (Esth. iii. 7, ix. 1; Ezra, vi. 15). It has usually twenty-nine days, of which the following have been set apart for commemoration: The seventh day is observed as the anniversary...
ADAR, THE SEVENTH OF – According to tradition or calculation (compare Deut. xxxiv. 8 and Josh. i. 11, iii. 2. iv. 19), the anniversary of the death of Moses (Megillat Ta'anit, last chapter). Josephus ("Ant." iv. 8, § 49) gives the first day of Adar as...
ADAR SHENI (WEADAR) – The Second, or intercalary, Adar, the thirteenth month of a Jewish embolismic year; it has twenty-nine days and the first Adar has then thirty. Purim is celebrated on the fourteenth of this later month of Adar in embolismic...
ADARBI, ISAAC BEN SAMUEL – A casuist and preacher of the Shalom Congregation of Salonica; lived in the sixteenth century. He was the pupil of Joseph Taitazak and the schoolmate of Samuel di Medina ( ). Adarbi wrote: (1) "Dibre Ribot" (Polemics),...
ADARSA – A village in Judea, thirty furlongs from Beth-horon, and a three days' march from Gazera. Eusebius ("Onomasticon," s.v.) describes it as being near Guphna. Under the name of Adasa it is mentioned in I Macc. vii. 40, and in...
ADAVI, MOSES BEN SAMUEL – A Talmudic scholar and author, who flourished in Tunis about the middle of the eighteenth century. He was a pupil of Isaac Lumbroso and Abraham Ḥayat. Adavi was the author of novellæ and collectanea to several treatises of the...
ADBEEL – A name found in the genealogical list of the sons of Ishmael, in Gen. xxv. 13, and in the corresponding list of I Chron. i. 29.G. B. L.
ADDA – The name of two amoraim, neither of whom had a distinguishing patronymic or cognomen. The elder was a Palestinian, and lived in the first generation (third century). He was a colleague of R. Jonathan (Yer. Ter. x. 47b). The...
ADDA B. ABIMI (BIMI) – A Palestinian amora of the fourth generation, disciple of R. Ḥanina b. Pappi, and contemporary of R. Hezekiah. It is surmised that his patronymic Abimi was changed into Ukmi or Ikkuma, that is, "the Dark," because his memory was...
ADDA B. AHABAH (AḤWAH) – 1. A Babylonian amora of the second generation (third and fourth centuries), frequently quoted in both the Jerusalem and the Babylonian Talmud. He is said to have been born on the day that Rabbi (Judah I.) died (Ḳid 72a, b; Gen....
ADDA OF CÆSAREA (KISRIN) – A disciple of R. Johanan, and a teacher in the third amoraic generation. Because of his cognomen he is erroneously supposed to have been the son of R. Abbahu of Cæsarea (Abbahu II.; Yer. Ber. 4, 8c; Yer. M. Ḳ. iii. 82c; Bab....
ADDA, CALENDAR OF – See Calendar.
ADDA B. ḤUNYA – The homiletic observation on Eccl. i. 4 ("One generation passeth away, and another generation cometh: but the earth abideth forever") has thus been transmitted by him: "Consider the present generation as good as the generation...
ADDA B. MATNA – A Babylonian amora of the fourth century, disciple of Abaye and of Raba. He appears to have obtained some halakic information from Rabina I., and in his later years to have associated with Rabina II. To satisfy his thirst for...
ADDA, MESHOḤAAH – A disciple of R. Judah b. Ezekiel, who instructed Raba how to measure city limits for the regulation of Sabbath walks ('Er. 56b, B. M. 107b). S. M.
ADDA B. MINYOMI – A Babylonian amora of the third century, junior contemporary of Rabina I. and of Huna Mar b. Iddi. He is sometimes quoted anonymously as "The Court of Nehardea" (B. Ḳ. 31b, Ḥul. 49a, Sanh. 17b). S. M.
ADDA B. SIMON – A Palestinian amora, who is known chiefly for ethical rules quoted in the name of his predecessors (Yer. Ber. ii. 4d; Yer. Meg. 1, 71c; Eccl. R. iv. 17). S. M.