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CASIMIR II., THE JUST – King of Poland; born 1138; ascended the throne on the deposition of his brother Mieczyslaw III., 1177; died 1194. He was one of the most amiable monarchs that ever ruled in Poland, a lover of peace, and a friend of the people....
CASIMIR III., THE GREAT – King of Poland; born 1309; succeeded 1333; died in Cracow Nov. 5, 1370. He was a peaceful ruler, and, by his salutary reforms, strengthened his reign and developed trade and industry. On Oct. 9, 1334, he confirmed the privileges...
CASIMIR IV., JAGELLON – Grand duke of Lithuania and king of Poland; born 1427; died at Grodno 1492. He succeeded to the grand duchy in 1440, and followed his brother Ladislaus III. on the throne of Poland in 1447. For the greater part of his reign,...
CASIPHIA – The residence of the Nethinim, who were under the leadership of Iddo (Ezra viii. 17). Ezra sent them a message from Ahava, which resulted in their joining his forces at that place. The exact site of Casiphia is uncertain.J. Jr....
CASLARI – Name of a family originally from Caylar (Latin, "Castalarium"), a village in the department of Hérault, France. A rather important Jewish community existed at Caylar in the Middle Ages. After the royal edict of Sept. 17, 1394,...
CASLARI, ABRAHAM BEN DAVID – Physician; lived at Besalu, Catalonia, in the first half of the fourteenth century. Caslari was considered one of the most skilful physicians of his time. He was the teacher of Moses Narboni of Perpignan, and one of the ten...
CASLARI, CRESCAS – See Crescas Vidal De Caslari.
CASLARI, ISRAEL BEN JOSEPH HALEVI – Physician and poet, lived at Avignon in 1327. He was the author of a liturgic poem for Purim, beginning with the words . In a manuscript of this poem ("Rev. Et. Juives," ix. 116) the signature contains the words , from which...
CASLARI, JOSHUA – Liturgical poet; lived at Avignon about 1540. He wrote four elegies which are inserted in the manuscript Maḥzor of Avignon; his signature is found at the end of the last. Joshua Caslari is in all probability identical with the...
CASLUHIM – According to Gen. x. 14 (= I Chron. i. 12), the Casluhim are sons of Mizraim; i.e., a part or dependency of the Egyptians. Bochart ("Geographia Sacra," iv. 31) knew no better identification than the Colchians in the eastern...
CASPARI, CHARLES PAUL – German Semite and Biblical scholar; born at Dessau 1814; died 1892. His parents were Jews, and he was reared in the Jewish faith, but in 1838 became a Christian. In 1847 he was called to the University of Christiania, where he...
CASPI, JOSEPH BEN ABBA MARI BEN JOSEPH BEN JACOB – Provençal exegete, grammarian, and philosopher; born in 1297 at Largentière, whence his surname "Caspi" (= made of silver); died at Tarascon in 1340. His Provençal name was Don Bonafous de Largentera. He traveled much, visiting...
CASPI, NATHANAEL BEN NEHEMIAH – Provençal scholar; lived at the end of the fourteenth century and at the beginning of the fifteenth. He was a disciple of Frat Maimon, under whose direction he composed in 1424 his first work, a commentary on the "Cuzari." This...
CASSEL – City in the Prussian province of Hesse-Nassau. There was a persecution of the Jews at Wolfshagen, near Cassel, during the Black Death in 1348; and Hesse-Cassel is mentioned in the same year as a scene of persecution. In 1610...
CASSEL, DAVID – German historian and theologian; born March 7, 1818, at Gross-Glogau, Silesia, Prussia, where he graduated from the gymnasium; died Jan. 22, 1893, in Berlin. Cassel's name is intimately connected with the founders of Jewish...
CASSEL, HARTWIG – Journalist and chess editor; born Nov. 2, 1850, at Konitz, West Prussia, where his father, Dr. Aaron Cassel, was rabbi. He was educated at the Real-Gymnasium in Landsberg on-the-Warta, and in 1879 went to England, where he began...
CASSEL, JACOB – German physician; born at Schwerin-on-the-Warta, province of Posen, Prussia, May 25, 1859. He was educated at the universities of Berlin and Leipsic, from which latter place he was graduated as doctor of medicine in 1883. The...
CASSEL, PAULUS STEPHANUS (SELIG) – Convert to Christianity and missionary to the Jews; born Feb. 27, 1821, in Gross-Glogau, Silesia; died Dec. 23, 1892, in Friedenau, near Berlin. His father was a sculptor, and his brother David was docent at the Berlin...
CASSIA – The term given as the translation for "ḳiddah" (Ex. xxx. 24; Ezek. xxvii. 19) and "ḳeẓi'ot" (Ps. xlv. 9). Ancient commentators agree in identifying the two. Onkelos to Ex. xxx. 24 renders "ḳiddah" by "ḳeẓi'ah"; Rashi does the...
CASSIUS LONGINUS – Questor of Crassus in Syria in 53 B.C. After the unfortunate battle of Carrhæ, Syria, he became independent governor of the province, clearing it of the Parthians, and traversing all parts of the country in order to reestablish...
CASSUTO, JUDAH – azan of the Portuguese-Jewish community of Hamburg; born in Amsterdam 1808; died at Hamburg March 10, 1893. In 1827 he was elected ḥazan of the Portuguese-Jewish community, a post which he held until his death. Cassuto was not...
CASTANHO, ABRAHAM – Spanish poet; lived at Amsterdam in the middle of the seventeenth century. He was the author of an elegy on the martyr Abraham Nuñez of Bernal, who was burned at Cordova May 3, 1655. It was inserted in "Elogios que Zelosos...
CASTEL D'AJANO, SAMUEL DI – Italian physician and philosopher; lived at Mantua in the sixteenth century. A philosophical work of his on the articles of belief, entitled "Meor ha-Golah" (The Light of the Exile), is still extant in manuscript (Michael, "Or...
CASTEL-BRANCO, JOEL RODRIGO – See Juan Rodrigo.
CASTEL-SARASSIN – Chief town of the department of Tarn-et-Garonne, France. A somewhat important Jewish community existed here in the Middle Ages. When attacked by the Pastoureaux in 1320, all the Jews except two killed one another, in order not...