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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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CLEMENT XIV. (LORENZO GANGANELLI) – Two hundred and fifty-sixth pope; born at San Arcangelo, near Rimini, Oct. 31, 1705; elected May 19, 1769; died Sept. 22, 1774. His election was hailed with particular joy by the Jews, who trusted that the man who, as councilor...
CLEMENTINA – A series of kindred works of a Judæo-Christian sect of the second century, of which only the Homilies, the Recognitions, and the Epitomes have been preserved. The Homilies, published first in 1853, present in the form of...
CLEOPATRA – Queen of Egypt 52-30 B.C.; daughter of Ptolemy Auletes. Through her association with the rulers of Rome, Cleopatra was of importance not so much to the Jews of her own country as to those of Judea. When Herod fled in great...
CLEOPATRA OF JERUSALEM – One of the nine wives of Herod I., whom he married late in life. She bore to him Herod and Philippus (Josephus, "Ant." xvii. 1, § 3; "B. J." i. 28, § 4).G.S. Kr.
CLERGY – See Priest and Priesthood;Rabbi.
CLERICAL ERRORS – Errors made in the writing of documents, especially legal documents, for the prevention of which the Jews have many stringent laws. The Jewish official scribes were notably exact in the preparation of legal documents (Git. 2b);...
CLERMONT-FERRAND – Early History. Chief town of the department of Puy-de-Dôme, France. The origin of the Jewish community of Augusta-Nemetum (Clermont) is usually assigned to the third century of the common era. It is said that the first apostle...
CLEVE, GERMANY – See JÜlich.
CLEVE, ELIJAH – See Gomperz Family.
CLEVELAND – Capital of Cuyahoga county, Ohio, U. S. A.; situated at the mouth of the Cuyahoga River, and an important port on Lake Erie. The history of its Jewish community dates back to the year 1837, when a Bavarian, Simson Thorman,...
CLIMATION – The adaptation of the individual to a new climate. It has been observed that when people emigrate to a strange country, even when the new climate differs but little from that of the mother country, there occurs a transformation...
CLISSON – Town in the department of Loire-Inférieure, France, formerly belonging to the province of Brittany. Clisson was a center of Jewish learning, several renowned scholars having resided there; and its name, variously written , ,...
CLOAK – See Mantle.
CLOUD – Biblical Data: The Hebrew equivalents for "cloud" are: (1) "'Anan," (Gen. ix. 13, 14; Ex. xiii., passim), which occurs once in the feminineform "'ananah" (Job iii. 5), and once in the Aramaic form (Dan. vii. 13). (2) "'Ab" is...
CLOUD, PILLAR OF – Biblical Data: When Israel was marching through the wilderness, Yhwh, wrapped in a pillar of cloud, preceded the people in order to show them the right way. During the night the cloud turned into a pillar of fire (Ex. xiii. 21;...
COAL – Expressed in the Bible by two words, (Prov. xxvi. 21; Isa. xliv. 12, liv. 16) and (Ps. xviii. 9 [A. V. 8]; Prov. xxv. 22). Since means "to glow" or "to burn," probably means "the glowing," and , "black coal" (compare Prov. xxvi....
COAT – An outer garment with sleeves, for the upper part of the body; in the Bible it is an article of dress for both men and women, worn next to the skin, and is distinct from the "cloak," or outer garment (compare Matt. v. 40);...
COAT OF ARMS – Armorial bearings of families to which the right to bear arms has been granted by the recognized heraldic authorities. This right is in a heraldic sense distinctly feudal in character; and it seems to have originated, toward the...
COBLENCE, ADOLPHE – French army surgeon; born at Nancy May 11, 1812; died in Paris Sept 18, 1872. He entered the service of the army as an assistant surgeon in the military hospital at Metz in 1832; became surgeon in 1834; and subsequently was made...
COBLENZ – Prussian city on the Rhine. Jews settled there between 1135 and 1159, and are first mentioned in the "Judenschreinsbuch" (Archives) of Cologne. As early as 1100 there is mention of a custom-house in Coblenz at which Jews were...
COBLENZ, GERSON BEN ISAAC MOSES – French rabbi and author; born about 1717; died at Metz in the first half of the eighteenth century. He was a pupil of R. Jacob, author of "Shebut Ya'aḳob," and officiated as dayyan at Metz. Of his works the following are known:...
COBO – See Covo.
COCCEIUS (KOCH), JOHANNES – German theologian and Hebraist; born at Bremen 1603; died at Leyden Nov. 5, 1669. He was appointed professor of Hebrew at Bremen in 1629, and at Franeker in 1636, where, after 1643, he also held the chair of theology. In 1650 he...
COCHABI, JOSEPH BEN ABRAHAM – See Kokabi, Joseph ben Abraham.
COCHIN – State of India, within the Madras Presidency. The Jews in Cochin numbered 1,142 in 1891, and are divided into two classes: the Whites, whose complexion is almost as fair as that of European Jews, and the Blacks, who, though...