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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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CUZZERI, SEMA – Italian poet; resident at Padua. He witnessed the terrible attack on the ghetto of Padua on Aug. 20, 1684. He portrays the sorrows of that time in an Italian poem entitled "L'Innocenza Illesa," and narrates the horrible...
CYMBALS – Musical instruments of percussion. The term is used in the A. V. in all passages except one (Zech. xiv. 20) as the rendering of the Hebrew "ẓelẓelim" and "meẓiltayim." Known to most nations of antiquity, cymbals served to mark...
CYPRESS – Generally, the tree known to botanists as Cupressus sempervirens, and common to southern Europe and western Asia. In modern Palestine the cypress is frequently found in the neighborhood of towns, and is often planted in...
CYPROS – Wife of King Agrippa I., daughter of Phasaelus and Salampsio, and granddaughter of Herod I. She had three daughters, Berenice, Mariamne, and Drusilla; and two sons, Agrippa and Drusus, the latter dying in childhood (Josephus,...
CYPROS – A woman of noble Arabian family; married about 75 B.C. the Jewish governor Antipater, to whom she bore five children, Phasaelus, Herod (afterward king), Josephus, Pheroras, and Salome (Josephus, "Ant." xiv. 7, § 3; idem, "B. J."...
CYPRUS – In Hasmonean Times. The large island in the easternmost basin of the Mediterranean, probably deriving its name from the Cyprus flower (Κύπρος), the Hebrew appellation of which is . Josephus states ("Ant." i. 6, § 1) that the...
CYRENE – A large and important city in Cyrenaica, the district of Upper Libya on the north coast of Africa, west of Egypt. Cyrene was one of the five large cities that gave to this region the name of "Pentapolis" (compare Josephus, "B....
CYRIL – Apostle of the Slavonians and author of the Slavonic alphabet (Cyrillitza), which is probably a modification of an older Slavonic alphabet (Glagola); born at Salonica about 820; died in Rome Feb. 14 869. His baptismal name was...
CYRUS – The founder of the Persian empire. The name is also found in India as "Kurus," and is evidently Aryan. The translation "sun" given by Ctesias (in Müller's edition of Didot's "Herodotus," fragm. 29, 49) is due to a confusion with...
CYZICENUS ANTIOCHUS – See Antiochus IX. Cyzicenus.
CZACKI, TADEUSZ – Polish statesman and author; born in Poryck, government of Volhynia, Russia, Aug. 28, 1765; died in Dubno, Volhynia, Feb. 8, 1813. When Prince Adam Czartoryski was placed at the head of the educational district of Wilna, Czacki...
CZARNIECKI, STEFAN – Polish general; born 1599; died at the village of Sokolovka, Volhynia, Feb. 12, 1664. Czarniecki distinguished himself in the wars against Sweden and Russia (1656-61), but unlike Wishnevietzki, who stands out as the protector of...
CZARNIKAU – Town in the district of Bromberg, province of Posen, Germany. The Jewish community of this town probably dates back to the beginning of the seventeenth century, at which time, according to tradition, the Polish prince Sapieha...
CZARTORYSKI, PRINCE ADAM GEORG – Polish statesman and patriot; born in Warsaw Jan. 14, 1770; died in Montfermeil Castle, near Paris, July 15, 1861. After the final partition of Poland Czartoryski and his brother Constantine went to St. Petersburg in 1795 and...
CZATZKES, BARUCH – One of the Neo-Hebraic poets of the beginning of the nineteenth century; lived at Lutzk, Volhynia. Delitzsch ("Zur Gesch. der Jüdischen Poesie," p. 109) mentions him as one of the Germanizing Hebrew poets of the "Bikkure...
CZECHOWIC, MARTIN – Polish Unitarian priest; born at Zbaszynie about 1530; died 1613. Czechowic lived at a time when religious restlessness was prevalent in Poland. Numerous religious sects arose, varying from the old Catholicism and the new...
CZENSTOCHOW – See Chenstochov.
CZERNIGOV – See Chernigov.
CZERNOWITZ – Capital of the province of Bukowina, Austria, situated near the banks of the Pruth, about 150 miles from Lemberg. Jews were living here and in a few other places in Bukowina when the Austrians took possession of the country in...
CZESTIONEV – Village in the government of Warsaw, Russian Poland. It is the seat of a Jewish agricultural college, which was completed in 1901, accommodation being provided for sixty students. The college lands comprise 1,630 acres, 1,090 of...
CZYNSKI, JAN (JEAN) – Polish lawyer, author, and journalist; born June 20, 1801; died in London, England, Jan. 31, 1867. The son of Jewish parents who had embraced Roman Catholicism before his birth, Czynski was throughout his entire life one of the...