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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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EMIN PASHA (EDUARD CARL OSCAR THEODOR SCHNITZER) – German explorer; born at Oppeln, Prussian Silesia, March 28, 1840; killed at Kinena Station, Kongo Free State, Oct. 23 or 24, 1892. When he was only two years old his parents moved to Neisse, where in 1846 the boy was baptized...
EMISSARY – See Agency, Law of; Attorney.
EMMANUEL – See Immanuel.
EMMAUS – Name of three places in Palestine. 1. A town, or place, memorable for the defeat of Gorgias by Judas Maccabeus (I Macc. iii. 40), situated in southern Judea, 22 miles, or 176 stadia, from Jerusalem. Its inhabitants were sold as...
EMMERICH FAMILY – See Gomperz.
EMPEDOCLES OF AGRIGENTUM – Greek philosopher and disciple of Pythagoras; flourished in the fifth century B.C.Empedocles' system, modified by the Neoplatonic school, entered into Arabic philosophy, and found exponents among the Jewish philosophers of Spain...
EMPEREUR, CONSTANTIN L', OF OPPIJCK – Professor of theology and Oriental languages; born at Bremen July, 1591; died at Leyden July 1, 1648. His father, Antonius Cæsar, driven from his native country by religious persecution, went to Holland. Constantin graduated in...
EMPLOYER AND EMPLOYEE – See Master and Servant.
EMRICH, SOLOMON BEN GUMPEL – Dayyan of Prague in the second half of the eighteenth century. He was the author of a work called "Shishshah Zir'one 'Arugah," six discussions in regard to ritual laws, one of them being with Ezekiel Landau about the law of...
EN KELOHENU – Ancient hymn, familiar from its occurrence in immediate succession to the Additional Service (Musaf) at festivals, and in many liturgies on Sabbaths also. To the four titles, "our God," "our Lord," "our King," "our Savior," are...
EN-MISHPAT – Another name for Kadesh (Gen. xiv. 7, R. V.), probably Kadeshbarnea, the place where Chedorlaomer with his three companions slew the Amalekites and the Amorites.E. G. H. M. Sel.
EN SOF – Cabalistic term for the Deity prior to His self-manifestation in the production of the world, probably derived from Ibn Gabirol's term," the Endless One" (she-en lo tiklah). It was first used by Azriel ben Menahem, who, sharing...
'ENA, RAB – Babylonian scholar of the third amoraic generation (third century); contemporary of Rab Judah b. Ezekiel. The two were known as "sabe de Pumbedita" (elders of Pumbedita, Sanh. 17b; 'Er. 79b et seq.).'Ena once pronounced at the...
ENCHANTMENT – See Divination.
ENCYCLOPEDIA – A work containing information on all subjects, or exhaustive of one subject, arranged in systematic, usually alphabetical, order. Such works were not unknown in the Orient. Among Greek and Syriac Christians they were based upon...
ENDINGEN – Town of Baden, near Freiburg, famous in Jewish history through the blood accusationof 1470. In that year three Jews were burned at the stake upon a charge of having murdered eight years previously a Christian family of four...
ENDINGEN-LENGNAU – See Aargau.
ENDLER, SAMUEL BENZION – Talmudist; lived at Prague (?) in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. He was the author of "Emunat Yisrael," treating of morals and dogmas as dealt with by Maimonides, Judah ha-Levi, Naḥmanides, and others (Prague,...
ENDOGAMY – See Marriage.
ENDOR – Town in the territory of Issachar, allotted to Manasseh (Josh. xvii. 11). It is identified with the modern Endur, on the northern decline of little Mt. Hermon (Nabi Daḥi), a hamlet now abandoned, but which had in Roman days a...
ENDOR, THE WITCH OF – Apparition of Samuel. —Biblical Data: A necromancer consulted by Saul in his extremity when forsaken by Yhwh, and whose ordinary oracles (dreams, urim, and prophets) had failed him. The story is found in I Sam. xxviii. 4-25....
ENEMY, TREATMENT OF AN – Hatred of an enemy is a natural impulse of primitive peoples; willingness to forgive an enemy is a mark of advanced moral development. Jewish teaching, in Bible, Talmud, and other writings, gradually educates the people toward...
ENFRANCHISEMENT – See Slaves.
ENGADDI – See Engedi.
ENGAGEMENTS – See Betrothal.