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'ERUB – Mixture or amalgamation; ideal combination of things separate. There are several kinds of 'erub.'Erub (par excellence): The law concerning the transportation of objects from one place to another on the Sabbath distinguishes...
'ERUBIN – The second treatise of the Mishnah Seder Mo'ed, forming an appendix to the treatise Shabbat. It contains regulations concerning three kinds of "'erub": (1) the 'erub par excellence, called also, as in the first paragraph of this...
ERUSIN – See Betrothal.
ERWIG – See Visigoths.
ESAR-HADDON – King of Assyria from 680 to 668 B.C.; son and successor of Sennacherib and predecessor of Assurbanipal. He was one of the most energetic monarchs of the Assyrian empire. After ascending the throne vacated by the assassination of...
ESAU – Biblical Data: Jacob's elder brother (Gen. xxv. 25-34, and elsewhere; comp. Josh. xxiv. 4). The name alternates with "Edom," though only rarely applied to the inhabitants of the Edomitic region (Jer. xlix. 8-10; Obad. 6; Mal. i....
ESCALONA – City of Castile; said to have been named after Ascalon in Palestine. Jews were living there at a very early date. The fuero or charter granted to the city in 1130 by D. Alfonso VII. decreed that neither a Jew nor a Moor might...
ESCAPA – Rabbi of Smyrna; flourished in the first half of the seventeenth century; probably born at Uskup, European Turkey, after which place he is named. At first rabbi and chief of the yeshibah at Salonica, he later filled the same...
ESCHATOLOGY – The Day of the Lord. Gen. xlix. 1; comp. Gen. R. xcviii., "the Messianic end" ; Isa. ii. 1; also "the end," Dent. xxxii. 20; Ps. lxxiii. 17; Ben Sira vii. 36, xxviii. 6; comp. "Didache," xvi. 3): The doctrine of the "last...
ESCUDERO, LORENÇO – Spanish poet; born at Cordova of Marano parentage; died about 1683. After his conversion to Judaism he lived in great poverty in Amsterdam. The Marquis of Caracena, then governor of Flanders, urged him to return to Christianity;...
ESDRAELON (ESRELON) – The later Greek form of the more ancient Jezreel, and the name of the boundary-plain between the Ephraimitic and the Galilean mountain-chain (Judith i. 8). It is frequently spoken of as "the great valley"—a designation, however,...
ESDRAS, BOOKS OF – Apocryphal writings ascribed to Ezra.I Esdras: Name and Versions. Plain of Esdraelon, with Mount Tabor in the Distance.(From a photograph by Bonfils.)The apocryphal Book of Ezra, or, better, the "Greek Ezra" (Esdræ Græcus), is...
ESHCOL – 1. Brother of Mamre and Aner. The three brothers were princes of the Amorites and allies of Abraham (Gen. xiv. 13), whom they supported in his expedition against Chedorlaomer.2. The valley from which the spies cut the large...
ESHTAOL – A town in the lowland of Judah (Josh. xv. 33), generally mentioned in company with Zoreah, both towns being allotted to Dan out of Judah (ib. xix. 41). Between these two towns there was a place named "Mahaneh-dan," the scene of...
ESHTEMOA – A town in Judah allotted with its suburbs to the priests (Josh. xv. 50, xxi. 14; I Chron. vi. 57). David frequented this place during his wanderings (I Sam. xxx. 28). It is known now under the name of "Al-Samu'a," a village...
ESKELES, BERNHARD, FREIHERR VON – Austrian financier; born at Vienna 1753; died at Hietzing, near Vienna, Aug. 7, 1839. He was the posthumous son of Rabbi Berush Eskeles. At an early age he went to Amsterdam, where he entered a commercial house, of which he...
ESKELES, GABRIEL BEN JUDAH LÖW – Polish rabbi; died at Nikolsburg, Moravia, Feb. 2, 1718. At first dayyan at Cracow during the rabbinate of his teacher, Aaron Samuel Kaidanower (1671), Eskeles successively occupied the rabbinates of Olkusz, government of...
ESKELES, ISSACHAR BERUSH – Austrian rabbi and financier; born 1692; died at Vienna March 2, 1753; son of Gabriel Eskeles and son-in-law of Samson Wertheimer. Eskeles called himself "Issachar Berush of Cracow," although at the time of his birth his father...
ESPERANSSA, GABRIEL – Rabbi at Safed contemporaneously with Jonathan Galante (middle of seventeenth century). It is supposed that he was received as an orphan into the house of a woman by the name of Esperanssa, who adopted and educated him, and...
ESPERANZA ISRAELITICA – See Periodicals.
ESPERIAL, SAMUEL – Physician of Cordova, Spain. He was the author of a treatise on surgery written for David of Jaen in Spanish, but with Hebrew characters (Vatican MS. No. 372).Bibliography: Wolf, Bibl. Hebr. i., No. 2047; Steinschneider, Jewish...
ESPINA, ALFONSO D' – See Spina, Alfonso de.
ESPINOSA, BENJAMIN – Italian Hebraist of the eighteenth century; member of the rabbinical college at Leghorn. He published "Peri'Eẓ, Hadar," a ritual for certain special occasions, Leghorn, 1762, and "Yefeh Nof," containing seven didactic poems and...
ESRA, ELIA – Philanthropist; born at Calcutta Feb. 20, 1830; son of David Joseph Esra; died March, 1886. He was one of the wealthiest merchants of India, and was generally known as "the Indian Rothschild." It is said that he distributed...
ESSEK – Fortified town in Austria-Hungary, the second largest of Croatia; situated on the Drave. It has a population of about 18,000, including 1,600 Jews. Jews did not enjoy the privilege of residence there until 1792. They were,...