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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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FOLIGNO, HANANEL DI – Jewish convert to Christianity; lived at Rome in the sixteenth century. He made himself notorious by his slanderous attacks upon his former coreligionists. With Vittorio Eliano and Joseph Moro, two other converts, he appeared,...
FOLK-LORE – The science dealing with those institutions, customs, literature, and beliefs of the folk or uncultured people that can not be traced to government origination or individual authorship. In its larger sense it could claim as its...
FOLK-MEDICINE – The ideas and remedies common among uncultured people with regard to the prevention and cure of diseases. They are found among the Jews of all ages. Even in the Old Testament the use of the mandrake to produce fertility is...
FOLK-SONGS – Songs or ballads originating and current among the common people, and illustrating the common life. Jewish folk-songs exist in languages and dialects other than Hebrew and Judæo-German; in Ladino, for instance. Traces of Hebrew...
FOLK-TALES – Stories usually containing incidents of a superhuman character, and spread among the folk either by traditions from their elders or by communication from strangers. They are characterized by the presence of unusual personages...
FOLLY AND FOOL – According to the Jewish conception, folly is the antithesis of morality and piety (Prov. xiii. 19; Job xxviii. 28), as well as of wisdom and prudence (Prov. xiii. 16, 20); and the fool is an offender against religion and ethics,...
FOLZ, HANS – German playwright and physician of the fifteenth century; said to have been bornin Worms. He is mentioned as "Hans Falz zu Nurmberk balbirer." Folz wrote numerous farces and "Fastnachtspiele" (Shrove Tuesday dramas), and...
FONSECA (FONSEQUA), DE – Jewish-Portuguese family of Amsterdam, Hamburg, London, southern France, and America.Abraham de Fonseca: Died at Hamburg July 27, 1671 (according to other authorities May, 1651); ḥakam of the Portuguese community at Glückstadt,...
FONTAINEBLEAU – French town in the department of Seine-et-Marne. The nucleus of the community was formed about 1787. The oldest document relating to it in the archives is dated "Germinal 11, year 7" (March 31, 1799). At first the devout...
FONTANELLA, DAVID – See Finzi.
FONTANELLA, ISRAEL BERECHIAH BEN JOSEPH JEKUTHIEL – Italian rabbi and cabalist; lived at Reggio Emilia, later at Rovigo, at the end of the seventeenth century and in the first half of the eighteenth. He was also an eminent Talmudist (see Lampronti, "Paḥad Yiẓḥaḳ," s.v. ). An...
FOOD – Biblical Data: There are two main divisions of food, vegetable and animal.I. Vegetable Food: As among all the Oriental peoples, and as is the case even to-day among the fellaheen of Syria, vegetable food, and chiefly grain...
FORBIDDEN DEGREES – See Marriage Laws.
FORBIDDEN FOOD – See Dietary Laws.
FOREIGN ATTACHMENT – In modern law, the seizure of a debtor's property in a jurisdiction within which the debtor himself can not be found, he having absconded, or residing elsewhere. Such a proceeding has grown up in most countries under the...
FOREST – In the English versions the word "forest" is employed for the rendering of four different Hebrew words: (1) "ya'ar," which occurs more than forty times; (2) "ḥoresh," five times; (3) "ḥoreshah," once; and (4) "pardes," once. The...
FORFEITURE – See Confiscation and Forfeiture.
FORGERY – The act of falsely making or materially altering, with intent to defraud, any writing which, if genuine, might be of legal efficacy or the foundation of legal liability. The Mosaic law, intended mainly for an agricultural...