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FRIEDMANN, ALFRED – German poet and author; born at Frankfort-on-the-Main Oct. 26, 1845. Brought up as a goldsmith, he renounced that occupation and studied at the universities of Heidelberg and Zurich (Ph.D. 1870). Friedmann resided in Vienna...
FRIEDMANN, BERNÁT – Hungarian jurist and criminal lawyer; born in Grosswardein Oct. 10, 1843; studied law at the "Rechtsakademie" there and at the University of Budapest. He won general sympathy through his manly conduct in connection with the...
FRIEDMANN ("ISH SHALOM"), MEÏR BEN JEREMIAH – Austrian scholar; born at Kraszna, in the district of Kashau, Hungary, July 10, 1831. At the age of thirteen he entered the yeshibah at Ungvar, where he was attracted to Ḥasidism and the Cabala. Fortunately, however, at the age...
FRIEDMANN, MORITZ – Hungarian cantor; born in Hrabócz, Hungary, March 7, 1823; died in Budapest Aug. 29, 1891. Up to 1848 he filled several positions in minor provincial congregations. At the outbreak of the revolution in that year he enlisted in...
FRIEDMANN, PAUL – German philanthropist; born at Berlin in the middle of the nineteenth century. Friedmann is of Jewish descent, and is connected with the family of Moses Mendelssohn. Much exercised over the fate of the Russian Jews after the...
FRIEDMANN, SIEGWART – German actor; born at Budapest April 25, 1842. He was a pupil of Dawison, who not only educated him for the stage, but took him into his own home and family. He made his début at Breslau Oct. 18, 1863, as Ferdinand in "Egmont,"...
FRIEDRICHSFELD, DAVID B. ZEBI HIRSCH – German and Hebrew author; born about 1755 in Berlin; died Feb. 19, 1810, in Amsterdam. In the Prussian capital he absorbed the scholarship and ideas of the contemporaneous Meassefim. In 1781 he went to Amsterdam, where he was...
FRIEDRICHSTADT – Town in the government of Courland, Russia, with a population (1897) of 5,223, of whom 3,800 were Jews. With the admission of Jews into Courland toward the close of the seventeenth century a Jewish community was established...
FRIENDSHIP – Personal attachment to an individual due to mutual interests or arising from close intimacy or acquaintance.The historical books of the Bible furnish several instances of genuine friendship; and the pithy sayings of the Wisdom...
FRIES, JAKOB FRIEDRICH – Christian writer against the Jews; born at Barby, Saxony, Aug. 23, 1773; died at Jena Aug. 10, 1843. In 1801 Fries lectured on philosophy at the University of Jena, and in 1805 was appointed professor of philosophy, and in 1812...
FRIESENHAUSEN, DAVID BEN MEÏR – Bavarian mathematician; born at Friesenhausen about the middle of the eighteenth century; lived at Berlin, and later at Hunfalu and Ujhely, Hungary; died at Gyula-Fehérvá March 23, 1828. Till the age of thirty he occupied...
FRIM, JAKOB – Hungarian educator; born in Körmend May 1, 1852. On his return from a prolonged journey abroad, where he had studied the organization of various asylums for the insane, he opened in Rákospalota, near Budapest, a model...
FRINGES – Threads with a cord of blue entwined, fastened to the four corners of the Arba' Kanfot and the Ṭallit and pendent, like a tassel, in conformity with Num. xv. 38-40 and Deut. xxii. 12.The ẓiẓit consisted, according to Bet...
FRISCHMAN, DAVID BEN SAUL – Russian Hebraist; born in Lodz 1863; now (1903) residing in Warsaw. Frischman began very early to write both poetry and prose in Hebrew periodicals, and his style and the originality of his views soon attracted attention. He was...
FRIZZI, BENEDETTO (BENZION RAPHAEL KOHEN) – Italian physician and writer; born at Ostiano, Mantua, in 1756; died there May 30, 1844. In his youth he was instructed by Jesuits at Mantua, where he was the first Jew to attend a public school; there he showed a special...
FROG – The Hebrew term generally occurs in the plural; twice only in the singular as collective, once with (Ex. viii. 2) and once without (Ps. lxxviii. 45) the article. Frogs are mentioned in the Bible only in connection with the...
FROHBERG, REGINA – German writer; born at Berlin Oct. 4, 1783; date of death not known. She was the daughter of a very wealthy merchant by the name of "Salomo" (Kayserling gives it as "Saaling"). When only eighteen years of age (1801) she married...