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GERSONI, HENRY – American rabbi and journalist; born in Wilna, Russia, 1844; died in New York June 17, 1897. He attended the rabbinical seminary of his native city and the University of St. Petersburg, where he remained till about the middle of...
GERSONIDES – See Levi b. Gershon.
GERSTEIN, JONAH – Lithuanian educationalist and Hebraist; born at Wilna Dec. 4, 1827; died there Dec. 6, 1891. Gerstein was one of the first pupils who attended the rabbinical school of Wilna. After graduating he was appointed special agent of...
GERSTLE, LEWIS – Californian pioneer; born in Ichenhausen, Bavaria, Dec. 17, 1824; died at San Francisco, Cal., Nov. 19, 1902. In 1845 he emigrated to America and proceeded to Louisville, where he began his career as a pedler. There he met Louis...
GERSTMANN, ADOLF JOSEPH – German author; born July 31, 1855, at Ostrowo, Prussia. In infancy he was taken by his parents to Berlin; there he attended the Friedrich-Werder gymnasium, and later the university, studying philosophy and literature. In 1879 he...
GERUSIA – In Jerusalem. A council of elders. Moses was assisted by a council of seventy elders (Num. xi. 16), and the elders as representatives of the people of Israel are often referred to (I Kings viii. 1, xx. 7; II Kings x. 1; Ezek....
GESELLSCHAFT DER HEBRÄISCHEN LITTERATUR-FREUNDE – Society for promoting study of the Hebrew language, called in Hebrew "Ḥebrat Doreshe Leshon 'Eber." It was founded at Königsberg in 1783 by Isaac Euchel and Mendel Bresslau, two young Hebrew scholars, for the study of the...
GESEM – See Goshen.
GESENIUS, HEINRICH FRIEDRICH WILHELM – Christian Hebraist and Orientalist; born at Nordhausen Feb. 3, 1786; died Oct. 23, 1842. At first devoting his attention to classical studies, he became a teacher at Heiligenstadt in 1809, but in the following year was appointed...
GESHAN – One of the sons of Jahdai, of the family of Caleb (I Chron. ii. 47).E. G. H. M. Sel.
GESHEM – One of the Hebrew words for "rain," applied mostly to the heavy rains which occur in Palestine in the fall and winter. This half of the year is called in the Mishnah "yemot ha-geshamin" (days of rains). In the liturgy of the...
GESHEM THE ARABIAN – Ally of Sanballat and Tobiah and adversary of Nehemiah (Neh. ii. 19, vi. 1). In Neh. vi. 6 he is called "Gashmu," which is probably more correct, as an Arab tribe named "Gushamu" is known (Cook, "Aramaic Glossary," s.v. ). When...
GESHUR, GESHURITES – Geshur was a territory in the northern part of Bashan, adjoining the province of Argob (Deut. iii. 14) and the kingdom of Aram or Syria (II Sam. xv. 8; I Chron. ii. 23). It was allotted to the half-tribe of Manasseh, which...
GESIUS, FLORUS – See Florus Cestius.
GESUNDHEIT, JACOB BEN ISAAC – Polish rabbi; born in Warsaw 1815; died there Sept. 11, 1878. He conducted a yeshibah for forty-two years, some of his many pupils becoming well-known rabbis. In 1870 he was chosen rabbi of Warsaw in succession to R. Bär ben...
GEṬ – The earliest use of the geṭ, an institution peculiar to the Jews, can not be established with certainty. Although the suggestion of the Rabbis that it has existed among the Jews since the time of Abraham (Yalḳ. Shime'oni, i. 95)...
GE'ULLAH – The name of the benediction which follows the reading of the Shema'. It refers to God's redemption of Israel from Egyptian bondage, and closes with the words "who hath redeemed ["ga'al"] Israel." The forms for the evening and...
GEZER – Ancient Canaanitish city mentioned in Egyptian inscriptions and the Amarna letters as being the seat of a local prince (comp. Josh. x. 33, xii. 12). The Israelites failed to conquer it (Josh. xvi. 10; Judges i. 29; comp. II Sam....
GEZERAH – Examples. A rabbinical enactment issued as a guard or preventive measure; also a prohibition or restriction generally; from the root "gazar" (to cut; to decide). The term is especially applied to a negative ordinance ("taḳḳanah"...
GEZERAH SHAWAH – See Hermeneutics.
GHAYYAT, ISAAC IBN – See Ibn Ghayyat, Isaac Ben Judah.
GHAYYAT, SOLOMON B. JUDAH – Hebrew poet of the twelfth century; possibly a grandson of Isaac Gḥayyat, the famous teacher of Lucena. Solomon was on terms of friendship with Judah ha-Levi, who dedicated to him one of the most important compositions of his...
GHAZALI, ABU ḤAMID MOHAMMED IBN MOHAMMED AL- – Arabian theologian and moralist; born at Tuz, Khorasan, 1058; died there 1111. His works exerted a great influence upon Jewish thought in the Middle Ages. Both the students and the adversaries of philosophy found in them rich...
GHAZZATI, NATHAN BENJAMIN BEN ELISHA HA-LEVI – Shabbethaian prophet; born at Jerusalem 1644; died at Sofia 1680. After studying Talmud and Cabala in his native town under Jacob Ḥagis, he settled at Gaza, whence his name "Ghazzati." The fact of his father being a German Jew...
GHENT – Chief city of eastern Flanders, Belgium. That at the time of the Crusades there were Jews in Ghent is known, as they were the victims of pillage and massacre. In 1125 the Jews were expelled from Flanders by Charles I. "the...