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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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HUTTEN, ULRICH VON – Poet and satirist; born in the castle of Steckelberg, near Fulda, April 2l, 1488; died on the Isle of Ufnau, Lake Zurich, Aug. 29, 1523. As a humanist and one of the strongest champions of the Reformation wielding a sharp and...
ḤUYAYY IBN AKHṬAB – Chief of the Banu al-Nadir; executed at Medina March, 627. Ḥuyayy was a courageous warrior and the most inveterate enemy of Mohammed, so that Ibn Hisham, Mohammed's biographer, calls him "the enemy of Allah." He was also a...
ḤUẒPA – Aramaic word meaning "impudence," used frequently in the Talmud, in late rabbinical literature, and in common parlance. In Biblical Aramaic only the verb is found: it occurs twice (Dan. ii. 15, iii. 22) in the sense of "to be...
HYAMS, ABRAHAM – Beni-Israel physician; died March 20, 1897; son of Hacem Samuel, president of the Beni-Israel School, Bombay. After taking his degree of licentiate in medicine and surgery, Hyams practised as a physician in Bombay, and in...
HYAMS, HENRY MICHAEL – American lawyer; born at Charleston, S. C., March 4, 1806, of English parents: died at New Orleans 1875; educated in Charleston and in New Orleans, to which latter city he went in 1828, together with Judah P. Benjamin, to whom...
HYENA – Biblical Data: The translation by the Septuagint of "ẓabua'" (Jer. xii. 9); the rendering of the Vulgate being "avis tincta," and that of the English versions "speckled bird." The rendering of the LXX., which is adopted by most...
HYKSOS – Name of a line of Egyptian kings, occurring in a passage of Manetho quoted by Josephus ("Contra Ap." § 14). It is said that they ruled for 511 years. Manetho explains "hyk" as "kings" (which Josephus disputes) and "sos" as...
HYMNOLOGY – See Poetry, Religious.
HYNEMAN – American family of remote Spanish and modern German origin, the record of whose early history is fragmentary. The first authentic record of any member of it in the United States is the signature of Henry Hyneman to the oath of...
HYPOCRISY – A word derived from the Greek ὑποκρίσις="the playing a part on the stage." It denotes acting a false part in life; pretending to be pious or righteous when one is not. It is only in later Hebrew that "ḥanufah" and "ḥanef" refer...
HYPOTHECATION – See Mortgage or Hypothec.
HYPSISTARIANS – Semi-Jewish sect found on the Bosporus in the first Christian century and in Asia Minor down to the fourth century. They worshiped God under the name of Θεὸς Υψισος Παντοκράτωρ (the Most High and Almighty One), observed the...
HYRCANUS – Collector of the royal revenues in Egypt; born in Jerusalem about 220 B.C.; died in 175; youngest son of the tax-farmer Joseph ben Tobiah by his second wife, the daughter of his brother Solymius. Displaying from his childhood...
HYRCANUS, JOHN (JOHANAN) I. – High priest; prince of the Hasmonean family; born about 175; died 104 (Schürer). He was a wise and just ruler and a skilful warrior. As a young man he distinguished himself as a general in the war against the Syrian general...
HYRCANUS II. – High priest from about 79 to 40 B.C.; eldest son of Alexander Jannæus and Alexandra. His mother, who had installed him in the office of high priest, named him as her successor to the throne. He had scarcely reigned three months...
HYSSOP – There is great uncertainty as to what specific plant is intended either by the Hebrew "ezob" or by the Greek ύσσωπος, nor is it clear that the words are identical. The Greek ὕσσωπος was credited with purifying qualities (comp....