JewishEncyclopedia.com

The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
- Phrase search: "names of god"
- Exclude terms: "names of god" -zerah
- Volume/Page: v9 p419
- Diacritics optional: Ḥanukkah or hanukkah
- Search by Author: altruism author:Hirsch
search tips & recommendations
JOSIAH ḤAZZAN – See Exilarch.
JOSIPPON – See Joseph ben Gorion.
JOSSA, GRIGORI ANDREIYEVICH – Russian mining engineer; born about 1800; died in St. Petersburg 1874. Jossa graduated from the St. Petersburg school of mines in 1823, and, after a short term of service at the Ural iron-works, was sent by the Russian...
JOST, ISAAC MARCUS – German historian; born at Bernburg Feb. 22, 1793; died at Frankfort-on-the-Main Nov. 22, 1860. Jost was one of a poor family of eleven, most of whom died in infancy; and when his father became blind, the duty of guiding him fell...
JOST LIEBMANN – Court Jew and court jeweler of Elector Frederick III. of Brandenburg (King Frederick I. of Prussia), and one of the elders of the Jewish congregation of Berlin; died 1701. As court Jew Jost succeeded Israel Aaron, whose widow he...
JOTAPATA – City in Galilee to the north of Sepphoris, strongly fortified by Josephus (Josephus, "Vita," § 37). In the Mishnah ('Ar. ix. 6, 32a) this city is called , styled "the Ancient," and is supposed to have been fortified by Joshua....
JOTHAM – 1. Youngest son of Gideon or Jerubbaal. On the death of Gideon (Judges viii. 33) the children of Israel fell back into the slough of idolatry, from the results of which he had so signally delivered them by the battle against...
JOURNAL SCIENTIFIQUE DE LA THEOLOGIE JUIVE – See Periodicals.
JOURNALS, JEWISH – See Periodicals.
JOY – The feeling of gladness and rejoicing.—Biblical Data: Cant. R. i. 4 enumerates ten different terms for joy, and Wünsche ("Die Freude in den Schriften des Alten Bundes," 1896) states that no language possesses as many words for...
JUAN DE ABADIA – See Abadia, Juan de la.
JUAN RODRIGO DE CASTEL-BRANCO – Portuguese physician; born at Castel-Branco, Portugal, in 1511;died at Salonica in 1568. He was a descendant of a Marano family called Ḥabib (= Amatus), and was brought up in the Jewish faith. After having graduated with honors...
JUAN DE SEVILLA – Representative of the Maranos in 1482, and a wealthy tax-farmer; lived in Jerez de la Frontera. In 1481, when ordered to answer to the charge of Judaism before the inquisitors Miguel de Morillo and Fra Juan de S. Martin, he...
JUAN DE VALLADOLID – Spanish poet and Marano of lowly station; born about 1420 in Valladolid. He lived at the courts of Naples, Mantua, and Milan as improvisator and astrologer. On his return to Spain he was captured by Moorish pirates and taken to...
JUBAL – Son of Lamech; "the father of all such as handle the harp and pipe" (Gen. iv. 19-21, R. V.); that is, he was the "father" or the first of the class of musicians, the founder of music, the inventor of the "kinnor" or lyre and...
JUBILEE – See Sabbatical Year.
JUBILEES, BOOK OF – Midrashic commentary on the Book of Genesis and on part of the Book of Exodus, in the form of an apocalypse, containing the views, legends, and religious practises of the most rigid Pharisaic (or Hasidæan) school of the time of...
JUDACARIA – See Ghetto.
JUDÆANS, THE – A society organized in New York Jan. 28, 1897, upon lines similar to those of the Maccabæans in London, England. It was formed "for the purpose of promoting and furthering the intellectual and spiritual interests of Jews."...
JUDÆO-CHRISTIANS – See Ebionites.
JUDÆO-GERMAN – The language spoken by the German Jews in Russia, former Poland, Austria, Rumania, and lately in America and South Africa. It is spoken also by many Jews in Germany, where, however, it is fast dying out. Before the end of the...
JUDÆO-GERMAN LITERATURE – The earliest known Judæo-German translation of the Maḥzor belongs to the fourteenth century, and Isaac ben Eliezer's "Sefer ha-Gan," which has had many editions, as well as Simeon ben Judah's "Sefer ha-Musar," was written in the...
JUDÆO-GREEK AND JUDÆO-ITALIAN – Although the Greek which is spoken and written by Jews in various parts of the Balkan Peninsula differs scarcely at all from that employed by the non-Jewish inhabitants, the term "Judæo-Greek" is convenient as distinguishing...
JUDÆO-PERSIAN – Among the Jews of Babylonia. Language spoken by the Jews living in Persia. The earliest evidence of the entrance of Persian words into the language of the Israelites is found in the Bible. The post-exilic portions, Hebrew as...
JUDÆO-PERSIAN LITERATURE – Sources. At the present stage of research it is not possible to arrange the literature of the Jews written in Persian but in Hebrew characters either in chronological or even in geographical order, because the origin of the...