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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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JULIUS OF PAVIA – One of the first European Jews of the Middle Ages known by name. About 760 he disputed at Pavia with Magister Peter of Pisa on the truth of the Christian religion. Alcuin, the friend of Charlemagne, mentions this disputation, at...
JULIUS SEXTUS AFRICANUS – See Sextus Julius Africanus.
JUMA-I-BALA – Turkish city on the Bulgarian frontier, four hours from Dubnitza. The community here dates from the middle of the eighteenth century, and must have been important and wealthy; for when the famous chief Pazvan-Oglu and his band...
JUNG-BUNZLAU – Town in northeastern Bohemia. Its Jewish community, one of the oldest in the province, was formerly one of the largest in Bohemia; it is first mentioned, under the name of , in documents dated 1546. The communal records begin in...
JUNIOR RIGHT – System of tenure in which a father's property descends to the youngest son; ultimogeniture as opposed to primogeniture. It has been suggested that the custom arose during the pastoral or nomad period, when the eldest son would...
JUNIPER – The traditional rendering of "rotem" in I Kings xix. 4, 5; Ps. cxx. 4; and Job xxx. 4, adopted by Aquila and the Vulgate, and followed by the English versions; while the Septuagint seem to have been at a loss regarding the exact...
JURISDICTION – The authority of a court of law to decide cases of certain kinds. This depends on the kind of matter in dispute; on the locality of the subject; on the residence of the parties; and on their willingness to submit themselves to...
JUS GAZAKA – The usual Italian term for the right of Ḥazaḳah, especially with regard to the rent of houses in the ghetto of Rome. Clement VIII. made it part of the law relating to Jewish tenant-right there. Several publications containing...
JUS PRIMÆ NOCTIS – Alleged seigniorial right to marital privileges. The feudal lords had the right of giving heiresses in marriage, and there appear to be traces of still more intimate rights over the daughters of tenants, though this has been...
JUSTIN MARTYR – Church Father, who in his works, written in Greek (the Διάλογος πρὸς Τρυφῶνα and Ἀπολογία are cited here as "Dial." and "Ap." respectively), makes frequent mention of the Jews and Judaism. He was born about the year 100 at...
JUSTINIAN – Rebellion of the Samaritans. Emperor of the Eastern, or Byzantine, Empire from 527 to 565. During his long reign he issued many decrees relating to the Jews, and his empire was the scene of bloody events which were of the...
JUSTO (ẒADDIḲ), JACOB BEN ABRAHAM – Portuguese chartographer; flourished in Palestine (Wolf, "Bibl. Hebr." i., No. 1097) in the first half of the seventeenth century. He was the author of a chart of Palestine, written in Portuguese under the title "Relação do...
JUSTUS, DR – Convert to Christianity and writer against the Jews; born at Costinasti, Rumania, about 1860. Until the age of twenty he lived at Buczacz, a small village in eastern Galicia. Leaving his wife and children, he went to Berlin and...
JUSTUS OF TIBERIAS – With Josephus in Galilee. Historical writer and one of the leaders of the Jews against the Romans in Galilee in the year 66. What is known of him comes mostly from his political and literary enemy, Josephus Flavius; so that an...
JUTRZENKA – Jewish weekly published at Warsaw in the Polish language. Its first number appeared July 5, 1861; and the paper continued to be issued until Oct. 23, 1863. Among its principal contributors were Ludwig Gumplowicz and Alexander...
JUVENAL – See Classical Writers.
JUWEL, MOSES MORDECAI – Galician scholar; lived at Brody in the first half of the nineteenth century. He translated from the German into Hebrew Hufeland's "Macrobiotik," or the art of prolonging human life, under the title "Ruaḥ Ḥayyim" (Lemberg,...