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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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SCHOTTLÄNDER, JULIUS – German gynecologist; born at St. Petersburg April 12, 1860. Studying at the universities of Munich and Heidelberg, he graduated as doctor of medicine in 1887. During the following two years he was assistant to Kehr in...
SCHREIBER, EMANUEL – American rabbi; born at Leipnik, Moravia, Dec. 13, 1852. He received his education at the Talmudical college of his native town, the rabbinical seminary at Eisenstadt, Hungary, and the Hochschule in Berlin (Ph.D., Heidelberg,...
SCHREIBER, MOSES B. SAMUEL – German rabbi; born at Frankfort-on-the-Main Sept. 14, 1763; died at Presburg Oct. 3, 1839. His mother's name was Reisil. At the age of nine he entered the yeshibah of R. Nathan Adler at Frankfort, and when only thirteen years...
SCHREIBER, SIMON – Austrian rabbi; born at Presburg, Hungary, 1821; died March 25, 1883, at Cracow; son of Moses Schreiber. In 1842 he became rabbi of Mattersdorf; in 1857 he declined a call from the congregation of Papa; and in 1860 he accepted a...
SCHREINER, ABRAHAM – Austrian discoverer of petroleum; born in Galicia in the second decade of the nineteenth century; died after 1870. He was a merchant in Boryslaw, where he possessed some land. On this land was a hollow from which exuded a...
SCHREINER, MARTIN – Hungarian rabbi; born at Grosswardein July 8, 1863; educated at the local gymnasium and the rabbinical seminary and at the University of Budapest (Ph.D. 1885; rabbinical diploma, 1887). From 1887 to 1890 he officiated as rabbi...
SCHRENZEL, ABRAHAM – See Rapoport, Abraham.
SCHREYER, JAKOB – Hungarian jurist; born Feb. 7, 1847, in Ugra. He studied at Nagyvarad, Debreczin, Budapest, and Vienna (Doctor of Law, 1870), and was admitted to the bar at Budapest in 1872. He is (1905) a member of the aldermanic board, and...
SCHUDT, JOHANN JAKOB – German polyhistor and Orientalist; born at Frankfort-on-the-Main Jan. 14, 1664; died there Feb. 14, 1722. He studied theology at Wittenberg, and went to Hamburg in 1684 to study Orientalia under Ezra Edzardi. He then settled in...
SCHUHL, MOÏSE – French rabbi; born at Westhausen, Alsace, May 2, 1845. He received his education at the lyceum at Strasburg and at the Rabbinical Seminary, Paris, becoming rabbi at Saint-Etienne in 1870, chief rabbi of Vesoul in 1888, and chief...
SCHUL – Judæo-German designation for the temple or the synagogue ("bet ha-midrash"), used as early as the thirteenth century. The building of synagogues being forbidden in nearly every European country at that period, the Jews were...
SCHULBAUM, MOSES – Austrian Hebraist; born at Jezierzany, Galicia, April 25, 1835. His mother was a descendant of Ḥakam Ẓebi. At an early age he devoted himself to the study of Hebrew, and in 1870 entered the printing-house of Michael Wolf at...
SCHÜLER GELAUF – Organized attacks upon the Jews of different Polish cities by Christian youths, especially pupils of the many Jesuit schools that existed in Poland during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. These youths not only assaulted...
SCHULHOF, ISAAC BEN ZALMAN BEN MOSES – Austrian rabbi; born about 1650 at Prague; died there Jan. 19, 1733. He settled in Ofen as the rabbi of a small congregation, and in 1686, when that city was stormed by the imperialists, he was overwhelmed by calamities. His...
SCHULHOFF, JULIUS – Austrian pianist and composer; born at Prague Aug. 2, 1825; died at Berlin March 15, 1898. Kisch and Tedesco were his teachers in piano, and he studied theory under Tomaschek. He made his début at Dresden in 1842, and later...
SCHULKLOPFER – Name given in the Middle Ages to a beadle who called the members of the congregation to service in the synagogue. It is stated in the "Minhagim" of R. Jacob Levi, or Maharil (ed. 1688, p. 88b), that the beadle used to summon the...
SCHULMAN, KALMAN – Russian author, historian, and poet; born at Bykhov, government of Moghilef (Mohilev), Russia, in 1819; died in Wilna Jan. 2, 1899. He studied Hebrew and Talmud in the ḥeder, and two years after his marriage he went to the...
SCHULMAN, SAMUEL – American rabbi; born in Russia Feb. 14, 1865. He was taken to New York when hardly one year old, and was educated in the public schools there and in the College of the City of New York. Schulman took his rabbinical diploma from...
SCHULMANN, LUDWIG – German philologist and writer; born at Hildesheim 1814; died at Hanover July 24, 1870. He studied philology at the University of Göttingen, and then taught for a time in his native city. In 1842 he began to advocate the...
SCHULTENS, ALBERT – Dutch Orientalist; born at Gröningen Aug. 23, 1686; died Jan. 26, 1756. He studied Arabic at Leyden under Van Til, and at Utrecht under Reland. He took his degree (Doctor of Theology) at Gröningen in 1709; became teacher of...
SCHUR, WILLIAM – American author; born at Outian, near Vilkomir, Russia, Oct. 27, 1844. He studied Talmud at his native town and at the Yeshibah, Kovno, and theology at the Lehranstalt für die Wissenschaft des Judenthums at Berlin (1868-70)....
SCHUSTER, ARTHUR – English physicist; born at Frankfort-on-the-Main Sept. 12, 1851. He was educated at Frankfort, at Owens College, Manchester, and at the University of Heidelberg (Ph.D. 1873). He early took an interest in physics, especially in...
SCHUTZJUDE – Jew under the special protection of the head of the state. In the early days of travel and commerce the Jews, like other aliens, used to apply to the ruling monarchs for letters of protection, and they obtained "commendation"...
SCHWAB, LÖW – Moravian rabbi; born at Krumau, Moravia, March 11, 1794; died April 3, 1857; pupil of R. Mordecai Benet in Nikolsburg, R. Moses Sofer in Presburg, R. Joshua Horwitz in Trebitsch, and R. Joachim Deutschmann in Gewitsch. He held...
SCHWAB, MOÏSE – French librarian and author; born at Paris Sept. 18, 1839; educated at the Jewish school and the Talmud Torah at Strasburg. From 1857 to 1866 he was secretary to Salomon Munk; then for a year he was official interpreter at the...