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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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SHIR HA-SHIRIM (CANTICLES) RABBAH – Composed in Palestine. Haggadic midrash on Canticles, quoted by Rashi under the title "Midrash Shir ha-Shirim" (commentary on Cant. iv. 1, viii. 11). It is called also Agadat Ḥazita, from its initial word "Ḥazita" (R. Nathan, in...
SHIR HA-SHIRIM (CANTICLES) ZUṬA – Midrash, or, rather, homiletic commentary, on Canticles; referred to in the various Yalḳuṭim and by the ancient Biblical commentators as "Midrash Shir ha-Shirim," or "Agadat Shir ha-Shirim." Recently the De Rossi Manuscript No....
SHIRAH ḤADASHAH – SHIRAH ḤADASHAH A passage which illustrates the influence of the Midrash on the development of synagogal music. The Biblical prescription of circumcision as a qualification for partaking of the paschal lamb (Ex. xii. 43, 48) led...
SHIRAH, PEREḲ (PIRḲE) – Chapter of song and praise to God by heavenly and earthly bodies, and by plants and dumb creatures. It is composed of Scriptural verses, one or two for each creature enumerated; and it is divided, according to subjects, into six...
SHIRAZ – City of Persia; capital of the province of Fars. It was founded by Mohammed, brother of Al-Ḥajjaj, in the year 74 of the Hegira (= 693 C.E.). According to traditions current in Persia, Jews settled at Shiraz at an early period,...
SHISHAK (SHESHONḲ I.) – The first king of the twenty-second dynasty of Egypt. His grandfather, Sheshonḳ, descendant of a Libyan soldier, married a royal princess of Egypt. His father, Namarôti, chief of the Mashaûasha, held in addition several...
SHISKES, SAUL B. JUDAH LÖB – Polish rabbinical scholar; died in Wilna, at an advanced age, March 28, 1797. He is chiefly known as the author of "Shebil ha-Yashar," on Alfasi, only the first part of which has been published (Wilna, 1839). Shiskes...
SHITTAH-TREE – See Acacia.
SHITTIM – Valley north of the Dead Sea on the left bank of the Jordan, in which the children of Israel, before their entry into the Promised Land, cohabited with the daughters of Moab and Midian. The Arabic name of the valley is Wady...
SHITTIM-WOOD – See Acacia.
SHI'UR ḲOMAH – Esoteric work on the dimensions of the body of God and of His several members. It exists apparently only in fragments, the largest, which often has been taken to be the entire work, being included in the "Sefer Raziel." These...
SHKLOV – Town in the government of Moghilef, Russia; situated on the right bank of the Dnieper. Jews settled there at an early period,probably in the beginning of the sixteenth century. Its location on the boundary-line between Russia...
SHKLOVSKI, ISAAC VLADIMIROVICH – Russian journalist; born at Yelisavetgrad in 1865. He was educated at the gymnasium of his native town, and at the age of sixteen began to contribute poems and prose articles to South-Russian periodicals. In 1886 he was charged...
SHKUD – Russian town in the government of Kovno, situated at the confluence of the rivers Bortava and Liwba. The earliest written information regarding the Jews in Shkud is found in their "pinḳes," which begins with the year 1725. No...
SHNEOR ZALMAN BEN BARUCH – Convert to Ḥasidism. Leader of the rational Ḥasidim called "ḤaBaD" (acrostic formed from "Ḥokmah," "Binah," "De'ah" = "Wisdom," "Understanding," "Knowledge"); born at Liozna, government of Moghilef, in 1747; died at Pyen, near...
SHOBACH – Captain of the army of Hadarezer, King of Aram, who was defeated and slain by David at Helam (II Sam. x. 16-18). According to Soṭah viii., Shobach was as famous for his strength as Goliath, and the Ammonites, as allies of Aram,...
SHOE – For the greater part, among the ancient Hebrews, the shoe consisted merely of a sole of leather or, less often, of wood, supported around the ankles by leather bands (see Sandals); but it is probable that Jewesses, even at an...
SHOFAR – Biblical Data: The ancient ritual horn of Israel, representing, next to the 'Ugab or reeds, the oldest surviving form of wind-instrument. As a rule "shofar" is incorrectly translated "trumpet" or "cornet"; its etymology shows it...
SHOFAR, THE – See Periodicals.
SHOFEṬ – See Judge.
SHOFEṬ KOL HA-AREẒ – Important Pizmon of six verses, each ending with a phrase from Num. xxviii. 23. Being signed with the acrostic "Shelomoh," it is often ascribed to Solomon ibn Gabirol; but by Zunz ("Literaturgesch." p. 312) it is attributed to...
SHOHAM – See Bdellium.
SHOḤEṬ – SHOFEṬ KOL HA-AREẒ One empowered to perform the ritual slaughter of cattle and poultry. In the Biblical writings there is no statement to the effect that any individual was specially appointed to fulfil this function; but it...
SHOMER ẒIYYON HA-NE'EMAN – See Periodicals.
SHOMRON ḲOL TITTEN – Dramatic elegy by Solomon ibn Gabirol, sung at the conclusion of the order of Ḳinot according to the Polish ritual, at both the evening and morning services of the Fast of Ab, and appended as a private meditation to the order of...