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ASHKENAZI, MEÏR, OF KAFFA (CRIMEA) – Envoy of the Tatar khan in the sixteenth century; killed by pirates on a voyage from Gava (near Genoa) to Dakhel (probably Dakhel or Dakleh in the western oasis of Upper Egypt), between the 15th and the 25th day of Tammuz...
ASHKENAZI, MEÏR BEN MOSES – Polish Talmudist; born about 1590 at Frankfort-on-the-Main; died about 1645 at Mohilev on the Dnieper. His father was dayyan at Frankfort and, later, rabbi at Danhausen, Bavaria. When a youth Meïr went to Lublin, Poland, where...
ASHKENAZI, MESHULLAM ZALMAN – Polish rabbi and man of letters; born in the second half of the eighteenth century; died at Lublin, Poland, May 1, 1843. He was the son of Rabbi Meshullam Zalman of Pomarin, whose family name was Orenstein, under which...
ASHKENAZI, MOSES – See Spaeth, Johann Peter.
ASHKENAZI, MOSES DAVID – Talmudist and author; born in Galicia about 1778; died at Safed, Palestine, in 1857. After holding the office of rabbi at Tolcsva, Hungary, from 1803 to 1843, he emigrated to Palestine, settling permanently at Safed. In 1844 he...
ASHKENAZI, MOSES ISAAC – See Tedeschi, Moses Isaac.
ASHKENAZI, NAPHTALI B. JOSEPH – Preacher at Safed in the sixteenth century; died at Venice in 1602. He wrote a work, entitled "Imre Shefer" (Words of Beauty), containing homiletic and exegetical dissertations on the Bible. The edition of this work published at...
ASHKENAZI, NISSIM ABRAHAM – Talmudic author; lived in the first half of the nineteenth century in Smyrna, where he officiated. He was the author of "NeḦmad le-Mareh" (Graceful of Appearance), which contains methodological rules on the treatises Berakot and...
ASHKENAZI, RAPHAEL BEN JUDAH – A rabbi of Smyrna, where he died in 1830. He wrote: (1) "Mareh 'Enayim" (Sight to the Eyes), Salonica, 1816—an index to the Talmud and to Rashi and Tosafot, after the model of Benvenisti's "Sefer Keneset ha-Gedolah"; (2) "Mareh...
ASHKENAZI, REUBEN SELIG BEN ISRAEL ELIEZER – Rabbi and author; lived in Russia about 1780. He published "MaḦaneh Reuben" (Camp of Reuben), a commentary on the Talmud, Leghorn, 1777.Bibliography: Benjacob, Oẓar ha-Sefarim, p. 321; Steinschneider, Cat. Bodl. col. 2139;...
ASHKENAZI, SHABBETHAI BEN MEIR – See Shabbethai ben Meïr ha-Kohen.
ASHKENAZI, SAMUEL B. ELIESER – Author of novellæ to the Talmud; lived at Opatow, Poland, in the second half of the sixteenth century. He was a pupil of Meïr b. Gedaliah of Lublin and wrote "Ḥiddushim," novellæ on the Talmudic treatises Ketubot and Ḳiddushin,...
ASHKENAZI, SAUL COHEN – Religious philosopher of German descent, as his name indicates; born in Candia 1470; died at Constantinople May 28, 1523. He was a disciple of Elijah Delmedigo, who induced him to devote his attention to philosophy. His...
ASHKENAZI, SIMON, OF GALICIA – Rabbi of Dobromil and Jaroslav (Galicia) at the end of the eighteenth and the beginning of the nineteenth century. He was a disciple of R. Jacob Isaac of Lublin (died 1815), and carried on a learned correspondence with Jacob...
ASHKENAZI, SOLOMON BEN NATHAN – Court physician of King Sigismund II., Augustus of Poland (1548-72), and Turkish diplomat; born probably about 1520; died 1602. A descendant of a German family settled in Udine (Italy), he came in his early youth to Cracow,...
ASHKENAZI, ZEBI HIRSCH (ḤAKAM ẒEBI) B. JACOB – Early Life and Education. Rabbi; born 1658 in Moravia, died May 2, 1718, at Lemberg. He was descended from a well-known family of scholars. When a boy he received instruction from his father and from his grandfather, Ephraim...
ASHKINASI, MIKHAIL OSIPOVICH – Writer in French and Russian; born at Odessa April 16, 1851. Having graduated from the Odessa High School, he studied medicine at the Academy of St. Petersburg and at the University of Kiev. Ill health forced him to discontinue...
ASHMODAI – See Asmodeus.
ASHMUN – The name of a Phenician god worshiped at Sidon and Carthage, in Cyprus and in Sardinia. A trilingual inscription from the latter island ("C. I. S." 143) identifies him with Æsculapius, the Greek god of healing. Near Sidon,...
ASHMURAH – A special term (compare "a watch in the night," Ps. xc. 4) in the synagogal rite of Avignon, denoting the early morning service on Hoshana Rabbah, the seventh day of the Feast of Tabernacles.Bibliography: Zunz, Ritus der...
ASHPENAZ – Chief of the eunuchs of Nebuchadnezzar (Dan. i. 3).J. JR. G. B. L.
ASHRE (YOSHEBE BETEKA) – The opening words of Ps. lxxxiv. 5 [4]: "Blessed are they who dwell in thy house: they will be still praising thee. [In A. V.] Selah." This verse, interpreted by Joshua ben Levy to signify that those who sit pondering on the...
ASHRE – The initial word of the verses Ps. lxxxiv. 5 [A. V. 4] and cxliv. 15, which verses are always prefixed to Ps. cxlv. in its recital in the synagogal service. In the northern liturgies these opening verses are associated with a...
ASHRE HA-'AM – Ps. lxxxix. 16, prefixed to "Ashre" on the Day of Memorial, or New-Year, immediately after the sounding of the Shofar. It is then associated in Ashkenazic congregations with a beautiful and typical melody, ofmedieval origin, in...
ASHTAROTH – A city east of the Jordan on the table-land of Gilead. It was the capital of the kingdom of Og, king of Bashan (Josh. ix. 10), though it would seem from other passages (Deut. i. 4; Josh. xii. 4, xiii. 12 and 31) that Edrei...