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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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BEETLE – English equivalent in A. V. for the Hebrew "ḥargol" (Lev. xi. 22; R. V. "cricket"). It is here mentioned as a kind of locust, together with "'arbeh," "sal'am," and "ḥagab." According to the Talmud the ḥargol has a tail, and a...
BEGGING AND BEGGARS – Although it has made ample provision for the relief of the poor, the Mosaic legislation does not contain any prescription with regard to beggars; nor has the Biblical Hebrew a specific term for professional beggary, the nearest...
BÉGIN, ÉMILE AUGUSTE – French physician and historical writer; born at Metz April 24, 1802 (according to some sources, April 23, 1803); died in Paris May 31, 1888. Meeting with difficulties in his preparation for the polytechnic school, he turned to...
BÉGIN, LOUIS JACQUES – French surgeon and author; born at Liège, Belgium, Nov. 2, 1793; died in Gorriquen, near Lacrouan, Bretagne, April 13, 1859. He studied medicine at the Military Hospital of Metz and in Paris. During the wars of Napoleon I. he...
BEHAIM, MARTIN – See Zacuto, Abraham.
BEHAK, JUDAH – Russo-Hebrew writer; born at Wilna Aug. 5, 1820; died at Kherson Nov. 14, 1900. He was the last of the champions of progress in Russo-Hebrew literature, known under the name of "Maskilim." Owing partly to the influence of Elijah...
BEHALAH – A name commonly bestowed on several periods of great excitement in Lithuania and Poland, when, for various reasons, Jewish parents thought it prudent to have their children married at the earliest possible age. Early marriages...
BEHAR, JACOB JOSEPH HA-ROFE – Chief rabbi of Bagdad about 1843, and author of two Hebrew works; viz., "Shir Ḥadash," a commentary upon the Song of Solomon, printed at Calcutta, 1843, by Eleazar Mari Aaron Saadia Araki, and "Na'awah Tehillah," a commentary...
BEHAR, MOSES SHABBETHAI – Rabbi and author; lived in Salonica at the beginning of the nineteenth century. Author of a Hebrew book, "Torat Mosheh" (Salonica, 1802), a collection of responsa.S. M. Fr.
BEHAR, NISSIM – Palestinian educator; born at Jerusalem, 1848. His father, Rabbi Eliezer Behar, having migrated from Rumania to Palestine, instructed Nissim, when but five years old, in the Talmud. Distress forced the family to leave Jerusalem...
BEHEADING – Biblical Data: As a regular capital punishment, Beheading does not seem to have been known to the Israelites before the time of the Greek dominion. Only cutting off the head of a slain or disabled enemy (I Sam. xvii. 51 et seq.)...
BEHEMOTH – See Leviathan.
BEHR, ISSACHAR FALKENSOHN – Lithuanian poet; born in 1746 at Zamosc, government of Lublin, Russian Poland, or, according to Recke and Napiersky, at Salaty, a village in Lithuania, near the Courland frontier. Behr received in his native town no education...
BEHREND, FRIEDRICH JACOB – German physician; born at Neu-Stettin, Pomerania, June 12, 1803; died at Berlin May 30, 1889. He was educated for a mercantile career, and became a clerk at Königsberg, East Prussia, in 1819, but resigned the position in 1821 to...
BEHREND, GUSTAV – German dermatologist, medical writer, and professor of medicine at the University of Berlin; born at Neu-Stettin, Prussia, Jan. 10, 1847. He attended the gymnasium of his native town and the University of Berlin, obtaining his...
BEHREND, HENRY – Physician and communal worker; born in Liverpool in 1828; died in London Nov. 28, 1893. After completing a brilliant academical career, he studied for the medical profession at University College Hospital, London, and continued...
BEHREND, ISRAEL B. – German physician and writer on medical subjects; born at Wittenburg, Mecklenburg-Schwerin, 1804; died at Rostock,March 13, 1867. Educated at the gymnasium and the university at Rostock. In 1827 he received the degree of doctor...
BEHREND, JACOB FRIEDRICH – German jurist; born at Berlin Sept. 13, 1833; finished his studies in his native city at the university. He became "Gerichtsassessor" in 1859; but, deciding upon a scholastic career, he became privat-docent at the Berlin...
BEHRENDS, LEFFMANN – LIEPMANN COHEN): Financial agent of the dukes and princes of Hanover; born about 1630; died at Hanover Jan. 1, 1714. His honorable position is lauded by Mannasseh b. Israel in his "Hope of Israel." Behrends frequently used his...
BEHRENS, SIR JACOB – Municipal worker at Bradford, England; born at Pyrmont, Germany, Nov., 1806; died at Torquay April 22, 1889. His father, removing to Hamburg in 1815, became a successful merchant; and Jacob began his career by entering his...
BEHRMANN, LAZAR JAKOVLEVICH – Russian teacher and editor; born in Friedrichstadt, Courland, Sept. 26, 1830; died at St. Petersburg April 27, 1893. He received his early education in the ḥeder and in the district school of his native town, where he began his...
BEHRMANN, VASILI LAZAROVICH – Russian lawyer; son of Lazar Jakovlevich Behrmann; born in Mitau, Russia, Sept. 15, 1862; died at Cairo, Egypt, March 18, 1896. He received his early education at his father's school in St. Petersburg, passed through the...
BEILIN, ISAAC WULFOVICH – Russian teacher and physician; born in the first quarter of the nineteenth century; died at Wilna March 9, 1897. He was graduated from the Rabbinical School of Wilna, and subsequently held the position of senior teacher there...
BEIM, SOLOMON BEN ABRAHAM – Karaite ḥakam and ḥazan at Odessa; born there about 1820. Having received a good education from his father, who was an excellent Hebrew scholar, Solomon devoted himself to the instruction of his coreligionists, and founded many...
BEIRUT, SYRIA – City in Phenicia, at the mouth of the river of the same name, on the Mediterranean between Byblus and Sidon. In the El-Amarna texts (Winckler, "Altorientalische Forschungen," i. 309, 436; "Monatsschrift," 1898, xlii. 480) the...