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CARCASSONNE, DAVID – French physician; born Dec. 20, 1789, at Remoulins, a small town in the Gard department, France; died Nov. 15, 1861, at Nîmes. He was the son of a purveyor to the army of Napoleon I., and having joined the Grande Armée as...
CARCASSONNE, LÉON – French physician, municipal councilor, and member of the Academy of Nîmes. Son of David Carcassonne; died at Marseilles May 7, 1894. He was the author of the following works: (1) "Questions sur Diverses Branches des Sciences...
CARCHEMISH – City of northern Syria, on the Euphrates. Its importance seems to have been based on its situation at the end of the most direct route from the mouth of the Orontes to the Euphrates and to Harran. This position explains why it...
CARD-PLAYING – See Games.
CARDINAL – Translator; lived at the end of the twelfth century and the beginning of the thirteenth, probably in southern France. At the request of Joseph ben Baruch, who, according to Zunz, traveled from France to Jerusalem by way of Egypt...
CARDINAL VIRTUES – Virtues regarded as fundamental, and under which, as heads, all others may be arranged. The term "cardinal virtues" is first used by Ambrose to denote that group of four virtues which became familiar through the writings of...
CARDOSO, ELIJAH ABOAB – Philanthropist and founder of the Hamburg synagogue; lived in that city in the first half of the seventeenth century. He was descended from the Spanish family of that name, and was one of the first Jewish settlers in Hamburg. In...
CARDOSO, ISAAC (FERNANDO) – Physician, philosopher, and polemic writer; born of Marano parents at Celorico in the province Beira, Portugal, before 1615; died at Verona after 1680. He was a brother of Abraham Michael (Miguel) Cardoso. After studying...
CARDOSO, MIGUEL – Shabbethaian prophet and physician; born in Spain about 1630; died at Cairo 1706. He was a descendant of the Maranos in the Portuguese city of Celorico. He studied medicine together with his brother Fernando Isaac, and while the...
CARDOZA, DON AARON – Consul for Tunis and Algiers at Gibraltar about 1805. He was a descendant of a Portuguese-Jewish family. Cardoza promoted the interests of the British government; and as delegate of General Fox, the governor of Gibraltar,...
CARDOZO – American Sephardic family, doubtless connected with the Cardozos of Amsterdam and London, though the connection has not been made out. They trace back to Aaron Cardozo, a London merchant who went to New York about 1752.Among his...
CARDOZO, DAVID DE JAHACOB LOPEZ – Dutch Talmudist and prominent communal worker; born in Amsterdam, Holland, May 21, 1808; died there April 11, 1890. He was sent at an early age to the celebrated bet ha-midrash 'Eẓ Ḥayyim, studied under Rabbi Berenstein at The...
CARIANS – See Cherethites.
CARILLO, ISAAC – Lived in Amsterdam in the latter part of the seventeenth century; member of the Academia de los Floridos, founded by D. Manuel de Belmonte; administrator of the academy Temime Derech in 1683; and treasurer of the Maskil el Dal...
CARINTHIA – A crownland of Austria. It has but a small number of Jews, whose ancestors, with the Jews of the neighboring crownlands, Carniola (Krain) and Styria (Steiermark), shared the vicissitudes of their brethren in the Austrian empire....
CARITES – People mentioned in II Kings xi. 4, 19. The Kari (R. V., "Carites"; margin, "executioners", A. V., "captains") are mentioned between the captains over hundreds and the "runners" (i.e., satellites) as body-guards of the king. In...
CARLOS, DAVID COHEN – Spanish writer; lived at Hamburg in the first half of the seventeenth century. He translated into Spanish the Song of Songs under the title "Cantares de Selomo, Traduzido de Lengua Caldayca en Espagnol," Hamburg, 1631. The...
CARLSRUHE, GERMANY – See Karlsruhe.
CARLSTADT, CROATIA – See Karlstadt, under Croatia.
CARMANIANS – A people mentioned in II Esd. xv. 30. The Carmanians are represented as joining battle with the "nations of the dragons of Arabia." The dragons gain the upper hand, but are themselves defeated later (xv. 33). This has been taken...
CARMEL – The title of a German and a Hungarian Jewish weekly. See Periodicals.
CARMEL, MOUNT – A well-known mountain ridge in Palestine; ("the garden" or "garden land," with the definite article) is usually given in the Bible. It is known in later Hebrew as , and in modern Arabic as "Kurmul," but more usually "Jabal Mar...
CARMI – 1. A son of Reuben who came to Egypt with Jacob (Gen. xlvi. 9; Ex. vi. 14; I Chron. v. 3). Also the name of a family of which Carmi was the head (Num. xxvi. 6). 2. A Judahite (I Chron. ii. 6), son of Zabdi, according to Josh....
CARMI – Title of a small Hebrew review, published for some months in 1882 at Adrianople, under the editorship of Baruch Mitrani.Bibliography: Franco, Histoire des Israélites de l'Empire Ottoman.G. M. Fr. Mount Carmel from the Sea.(From...
CARMI – See Karmi.