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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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CARMI (CRÉMIEUX), MORDECAI B. ABRAHAM – See Crémieux, Mordecai b. Abraham.
CARMOLY, ELIAKIM – Leaves Ministry for Literature. French scholar; born at Sulz (then in the French department of the Upper Rhine) August 5, 1802; died at Frankfort-on-the-Main Feb. 15, 1875. His real name was Goschel David Behr (or Baer); the...
CARMOLY, ISSACHAR BÄR BEN JUDAH – Alsatian rabbi; born at Ribeauville, Alsace, Sept. 15, 1735; died at Sulz May, 1781. At the age of ten he was advanced in his training for the rabbinate sufficiently to follow the elaborate lectures of Jonathan Eybeschütz....
CARMONA – City in the archbishopric of Seville, Spain, where Jews resided in very early times. In an old "Fuero de Carmona" it was ordained that no Jew should command a Christian in Carmona or in any of the territory under its...
CARMONA – A family of Jewish financiers prominent in Turkey at the beginning of the nineteenth century. It is of Spanish origin, and probably came from the city of the same name in Andalusia. The earliest known member was Behor Carmona,...
CARNABAT – Town of eastern Rumelia or southern Bulgaria. According to tradition, Jews first established themselves at Carnabat about 1580; but the oldest tombstones decipherable bear date of 1686. Eliezer of Calo was chief rabbi of...
CARNIOLA – See Laibach.
CARNIVAL – Among the Romans, a period of gaiety during the weeks before Lent, in which the Jews were made to play a contemptuous part. While the carnival had existed from the earliest medieval period, its scope was considerably extended by...
CARO, ABRAHAM B. RAPHAEL – Turkish rabbi; flourished at Adrianople in the first half of the eighteenth century. He was a descendant of R. Joseph Caro, and was the stepson and pupil of R. Eliezer b. Jacob Naḥum, author of "Ḥazon Naḥum" (Constantinople,...
CARO, ARYEH LÖB BEN ḤAYYIM – Preacher at Posen in the second half of the eighteenth century. He was the author of a work, "El ha-Millu'im" (Ram of Consecration), a homiletic commentary on the Pentateuch and the Song of Songs, published, with additions...
CARO, DAVID – Prussian pedagogue; born about 1782 at Fordon, grand duchy of Posen; died Dec. 25, 1839, at Posen. He belonged to the school of the Meassefim, and devoted his great literary talents to the enlightenment of his brethren, to the...
CARO, EZEKIEL – German rabbi and historian; born Nov. 26, 1844, at Pinne, near Posen; son of the exegete and homiletic writer Joseph Ḥayyim Caro, rabbi at Wloclawek. He attended the gymnasium at Bromberg, the Jewish theological seminary and the...
CARO, GEORG MARTIN – Lecturer on history at the University of Zurich, Switzerland; born Nov. 28, 1867, at Glogau, Prussia. Caro received his education at the gymnasium of his native place and at different German universities, being finally graduated...
CARO, ISAAC B. JOSEPH – Spanish Talmudist and Bible commentator; flourished in the second half of the fifteenth century and the first half of the sixteenth. The son of a scholar, and scion of a noble family, he devoted himself to study in his native...
CARO, JACOB – German historian; born at Gnesen, province of Posen, Prussia, Feb. 2, 1836; son of Joseph Ḥayyim Caro. After several years of diligent study at the universities of Berlin and Leipsic, he attracted considerable attention by his...
CARO, JOSEPH B. EPHRAIM – The last great codifier of rabbinical Judaism, born in Spain or Portugal in 1488; died at Safed, Palestine, March 24, 1575. After the expulsion of the Jews from Spain, in 1492, Caro went with his parents to Nicopolis in European...
CARO, JOSEPH ḤAYYIM B. ISAAC SELIG – German-Russian rabbi; born 1800; died in Wloclawek, government of Warsaw, April 21, 1895. He was educated as an Orthodox Talmudist, and married the daughter of R. Ẓebi Hirsch Amsterdam of Konin, government of Kalisz in Russian...
CARPENTRAS – Thirteenth Century. Chief town of the arrondissement of that name in the department of Vaucluse, France. Jews settled at Carpentras at a very early period. The collection of rabbinical decisions called "Ḳol Bo" quotes a document...
CARPENTRASI, JUDAH B. ẒEBI – See Judah b. Ẓebi Hirsch of Carpentras.
CARPI, LEONE – Italian political economist; born 1820 at Bologna, Italy. He was the first deputy elected to the Italian Parliament by the city of Ferrara. Carpi, on the expiration of his term, divided his time between Bologna and Rome, where...
CARPI, SOLOMON JOSEPH B. NATHAN – Italian writer; born Dec. 27, 1715; lived at Leghorn. He engaged in the controversy with regard to Ḥayyon's book on Shabbethai Ẓebi, writing an attack on it, extracts from which were published by N. Brüll under the title...
CARPI, ZACHARIAH – Italian revolutionist; born at Revere in the second half of the eighteenth century. After the French Revolution he appears to have engaged in plots against the Austrian government of Lombardy; and on March 25, 1799, he and his...