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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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HERZFELD, JACOB – German actor and theatrical manager; born at Dessau Jan. 3, 1769; died at Hamburg Oct. 24, 1826. After studying medicine at Leipsic University he became an actor, making his début in Vienna. In 1791 he was engaged at the Hamburg...
HERZFELD, JACOB – German chemist; born at Mülheim, near Cologne, June 17, 1859; educated at the gymnasium and technical high school of Charlottenburg, and the University of Berlin (Ph.D. 1886). In 1885 he became director of the dyeing department...
HERZFELD, LEVI – German rabbi and historian; born Dec. 27, 1810, at Ellrich; died at Brunswick March 11, 1884. Having chosen the rabbinical career, he studied under Chief Rabbi Abraham Bing at Würzburg, and under District Rabbi Egers at...
HERZL, SIEGMUND – Austrian merchant and novelist; born at Vienna May 26, 1830; died there Feb. 9, 1889. He wrote: "Liederbuch eines Dorfpoeten," 1853; "Lieder eines Gefangenen," 1874; "Prager Elegien," 1880. He translated Petöfi's poems. Herzl...
HERZL, THEODOR – Leader of political Zionism; born in Budapest May 2, 1860. Herzl settled in Vienna in his boyhood, and was educated there for the law, taking the required Austrian legal degrees; but he devoted himself almost exclusively to...
HERZOG, JAKOB – Austrian writer; born at Misslitz, Moravia, June 17, 1842. He was educated at Brönn, Vienna, and Graz. When only seventeen years of age he wrote for Kuranda's "Ostdeutsche Post." For nearly two years he was secretary of the...
HESHBON – Town originally belonging to Moab; mentioned in Num. xxi. 25 et seq.; Deut. i. 4, iii. 6, iv. 26, xxix. 7; Josh. ix. 10; xii. 2 et seq.; xiii. 10, 21; Isa. xv. 4; xvi. 8, 9; Jer. xlviii. 2; Cant. vii. 5 (A. V. 4); Judith v. 15;...
ḤESHWAN (MARḤESHWAN) – The eighth month in the Hebrew calendar. The name is not found in the Bible, since it was introduced after theBabylonian exile, as were the Hebrew names of the other months now in use. "Ḥeshwan" is an arbitrary shortening of...
HESPED – See Funeral Oration.
HESS, ERNST FRIEDRICH – German convert to Christianity and anti-Jewish writer; lived in the sixteenth century. He was the author of "Neue Judengeissel, eine Polemische Schrift Gegen Juden und Judenthum" (Fritzlar, 1589; Paderborn, 1600 and 1606;...
HESS, ISAAC – Advocate of Jewish emancipation in Württemberg; born in Lauchheim, near Ellwangen, in 1789; died Oct. 6, 1866. Destined for the rabbinate, he was sent to the Talmudic school at Fürth, in which he remained four years. With the...
HESS, MENDEL – German rabbi; born at Lengsfeld, Saxe-Weimar, March 17, 1807; died at Eisenach Sept. 21, 1871. He was one of the first Jewish theologians to combine a university education with Talmudical training. From 1828 until his death he...
HESS, MICHAEL – German educator and author; born in Stadt-Lengsfeld, Weimar, April 9, 1782; died at Frankfort-on-the-Main Feb. 26, 1860; brother of Mendel Hess. His father, Rabbi Isaac Hess Kugelmann, destined him for a rabbinical career. After...
HESS, MOSES (MORITZ) – Jewish socialist and nationalist; born at Bonn June 21, 1812; died in Paris April 6, 1875; buried in the Jewish cemetery at Cologne. His grandfather, who had come from Poland, instructed him in Bible and Talmud, but on the whole...
HESSBERG, ALBERT – American lawyer; born at Albany, N. Y., Dec. 13, 1856. He commenced the study of law there in the office of Rufus W. Peckham, associate justice of the United States Supreme Court, and ultimately became a partner, the firm...
HESSE – Former landgraviate of the German-Roman empire. The only Jews mentioned in documents relating to its early history are those of some parts of Thuringia. After the organization of the county of Hesse, with the capital...
HESSE-NASSAU – See Nassau.
ḤET – Eighth letter of the Hebrew alphabet. The name, perhaps, means "hedge," "fence"; on the form, which is Aramaic, see Alphabet. "Ḥet" is a guttural, commonly pronounced nearly as the German "ch" before "a" or "o." Originally—as...
HET NEDERLANDSCHE ISRAELIET – See Periodicals.
– Second son of Canaan (Gen. x. 15; I Chron. i. 13) and, apparently, the progenitor of the Hittites. Heth's descendants are called "children of Heth" ("bene Ḥet"), and, in Abraham's time, are said to have lived at Hebron. From...
HETHLON – Place referred to in Ezekiel (xlvii. 15, xlviii. 1); situated on the northern boundary of Israel as ideally projected by that prophet, who stated the place to be in the neighborhood of Hamath and Zedad. Furrer (in "Z. D. P. V."...
HEVESI, JOSEPH – Hungarian author and journalist; born March 15, 1857; studied at the high school in Keeskemét, and graduated from the University of Budapest. Hevesi is one of Hungary's most noted novelists. Among his works are the following:...
HEVESI, LUDWIG – Hungarian journalist and author; born Dec. 20, 1843, in Heves, Hungary. He began to study medicine and classical philology in Budapest and Vienna, but soon turned to writing, and since 1865 has been an active journalist and...
HEWERS OF WOOD – Menial servants. The Gibeonites who attempted to deceive Joshua were condemned by the princes of Israel to be hewers of wood and drawers of water to the congregation (Josh. ix. 21, 23). In Deut. xxix. 11 the hewers of wood are...
HEXAPLA – See Origen.